XX
XXX
XXX
Gloria Caruso Murray, 79, Artist
and Tenor's Daughter
NY Times - December 18, 1999
XXX
Enrico Caruso Jr., 82; Actor and Son of Tenor
NY Times - April 11, 1987
XXX
Note from Ida Sanchez
about the Remastering of Caruso's Recordings
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Quiz #420 Results
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Answer to Quiz #420 - November 17, 2013
**********
QUIZMASTER
ROGUES GALLERY
1. Who is singing?
2. What famous piece is he singing?  What is it about?
3.  What important "first" did this singer participate in
with other well-known singers?
UPCOMING EVENTS
**********
Click here for a photo-hint.
**********
Answers:
1.  Enrico Caruso
2. Donna e Mobile. Women are fickle.
3.  Among other firsts,
he participated in the first Public Radio Broadcast in 1910.
Comments from Our Readers
*****
Italian type words and male voice made me think of Caruso. Googling images for
Caruso's funeral brought up the hint picture. Finding which of Caruso's 260
recordings was used seemed to be a bit much. Googling Caruso's famous songs
brought up a discussion that mentioned three songs. With the titles before me, I was
able to recognize "mobile" and then the full title.
Arthur Hartwell
*****
Waited to the last moment to do this.  Saw that it was an audio quiz and I am losing
my hearing so really didn't want to listen.  Didn't see the photo-hint until late.  Once I
got the Caruso, the music I recognized, but not the name.  Went to Wikipedia and
listened to all the recordings until I found the right one.  I had to look up the meaning
of the song....don't speak Italian!!
Nancy Nalle-Mackenzie
*****
Team Fletcher (+ Jamey Turner) immediately recognized Enrico Caruso singing "La
Donna e Mobile" which is about the supposed fickleness of a woman. Mary and I
grew up with memories of our father listening to performances from the Metropolitan
Opera House every Saturday. Memories! Memories!

Thanks again for everything.  Mary wrote today to have me tell you "And, yes, to
Colleen, the live Met broadcasts are definitely still happening on Saturday afternoons
during the Metropolitan season.  We get it on both the classical public radio station
here in DC and on the one from Baltimore. *****
Grace Hertz and Mary Turner
Team Fletcher
*****
Enrico Caruso singing La Donna e Mobile (The Woman is Fickle).  It is about lust,
desire, love and deceit...women tend to change their minds, or so I've heard!

[It could also be about a gal named Donna from Alabama!!]
Dennis Brann
*****
LOVE the audio quiz. Having just watched the James Bond movie Skyfall, I
temporarily abandoned my neoluddite status and uploaded the Shazam app on my
iPhone. Lo and behold, it IDed the song for me, but skeptic as I am, I verified
it by comparing the sample with recordings found elsewhere on the Internet (ca.
1907-8). BTW, La donna è mobile has been stuck in my head ALL DAY. It's
really catchy. Kind of driving me crazy!!!!
Tynan Peterson
*****
This one was too easy and in my field of knowledge. I recognized the aria
immediately and assumed it was Carusso, but just for kicks, I googled "famous
rigoletto recordings" and went to videos, the first one I saw with Carusso and "La
Donna  mobile" and clicked, turned out to be the one I was looking for. It also
immediately made sense that the third question was about recordings, which was
confirmed by his Wikipedia biography.

According to the RCA Victor database, they did 3 recordings of "La Donna é Mobile",
one in 1904 with piano (Carusso makes a very similar interpretation, but he cheats a
little more attacking the high G# and A# than in the older version (he still cheats on
those). The second one was the 1908 one.

The third one has kept me still wondering, according to the records it was done in
1932, more than 10 years after Caruso's death. Which may indicate an early
remastering of some kind. For some reason I couldn't listen to it (either it wasn't
playing correctly or they didn't have it, can't remember).
Ida Sanchez
*****
Method:

I took a wild guess and googled "caruso earliest recording" and this led to
www.enricocaruso.dk/music.php?pageNum_rsmusik1=3&totalRows_rsmusik1=328,
which contains several hundred Caruso songs/arias.

One of the websites I cited lets you listen to the arias, and by switching back and
forth between your version and theirs, you can compare them (and the background
instruments) and determine if they are identical recordings, or just similar voices or
not.
I am sure there are some people who have listened to enough Caruso that they can
quickly tell the difference between him and other contemporaries, but not I. However,
even I can tell the difference between modern tenors such as Pavorotti and Domingo
and so on, given the better quality of recordings.

For me, it's the singing that keeps me coming back to opera -- I don't need to know
the overwrought plot lines or specific meanings of the lyrics. For example, "O mio
babbino caro" ("Oh My Beloved Father") from Gianni Schicchi (1918, Puccini) is one
of the most beautiful, and emotional, pieces you'll ever hear, but when I learned the
plot and actual meaning of the lyrics, they sort of detracted from the experience.
However, I freely admit I get bored with most of the parts between the spectacular
showpiece arias, and most of my opera listening is to excerpts and collections of
arias, not whole works.

I enjoyed the audio quiz as a change of pace; maybe one in every 5 or 10 quizes, not
50-50.
Collier Smith
*****
I got on to photo hint and used words Frenchman lying in state and found contest
photo result on Edward's Photos of The Day - Lying in State BlogSpot: A collection
of photos ranging from saints to singers and a few peasants under glass.
Mike Dalton
*****
First of all - I am not an opera fan and know very little about it. However,

(1) I did guess Enrico Caruso because of his general fame. I used the photo hint
to confirmed it was Caruso.  

(2) I listened to  dozen songs on youtube by Caruso.  My best guess is from act
three of Rigoletto, "La Donna e Mobile"

This was an interesting quiz.  Something very different.  I took me a
while to get the right song.  I did get luck to chose Caruso first.  other
opera singers would have made it a lot harder for me.
Tom Collins
*****
I did like the audio quiz.  You could run the gambit on different types of recordings.  
Could be interesting.

Hadn't listened to Caruso in many a year.  Grew up with opera then grew into
Broadway and movie musicals.  As you say you have to listen to the drama and not
just the singing.

Looking forward to stretching my brain some more on your quizzes.
Edna Cardinal
*****
I didn't know off the top of my head who it was - I should have. Also, the name of
the piece of music eluded me although I have listened to it many times.

From the quality of the recording I decided it was from a long time ago - one of the
early tenors. So I had to do some searching using the photo hint. For the music, since
the name wouldn't come to me, once I had the artist I listened to a few recordings of
his music until I found the right one That was a lot of fun!

I really enjoyed the audio quiz. It reminded me I don't listen to nearly enough music
although I really enjoy most genres.
Marcelle Comeau
*****
Actually, I knew the tune very well - used to imitate it as a kid, BUT I never knew
what it was called and I have no idea where it was that I heard it originally. Instead of
singing the lyrics,which I never understood Iwould simply sing "LALALA LA LALA,
LALALA LA LALA. (LOL) So, yes I had to puzzle it out. Originally was thinking that
maybe it was from the Barber of Seville, but found out soon this was not the case.
Cynthia Costigan
One reason you probably heard the music as a child is that many an advertisements
and cartoons use classical music because the copyright has expired.  You can
rerecord it and use it without paying royalties.  Remember the theme song from
Lone Ranger?  That's the William Tell Overture.  There are many other classical
pieces you would recognize without really being able to identity them except with
the product they were used to promote! - Q. Gen.
*****
Yes, I did enjoy the audio quiz. I appreciated the hint, though. That was the only way
I could figure it out.
Rebecca Bare
*****
i like anything different – which the quiz is every single week, leading me down roads
i would not have encountered any other way.

you know i had trouble getting to the sound but i feel free to write you about things
like that, so sure – bring on anything!

i like opera more for the music – so prefer Mozart, verdi, some wagner.  i also do
better if it’s on PBS with english subtitles, so i can get into the drama.  i cannot sit in
a theater for opera unless it’s mozart.
Debbie Johnson
I enjoyed [the audio quiz] a great deal. Back in the 70's I bought my first portable
Victrola.  Consequently i collected a lot of 78's.  Several Caruso. As for opera, it is a
joke in our family as i am the only one who enjoys it. I put on Puccinni very loudly
and sing along even louder.
Nelsen Spickard
Actually, the audio quiz is what pulled me in.  I hit the wrong "favorite" and there was
Caruso -- one of the few opera pieces (and performers) that I could immediately
identify.
Terry Hollerstain
Congratulations to Our Winners

Janice M. Sellers                Arthur Hartwell
Marcelle Comeau                Nancy Nalle-Mackenzie
Sharon M. Levy                Rebecca Bare
Carol Farrant                Cynthia Costigan
Sawan Patel                Betty Chambers
Dennis Brann                Suzan Farris
Ida Sanchez                Elizabeth Olson
Edna Cardinal                Nelsen Spickard
Shirley Yurkewich                Dianne Abbot
Collier Smith                Mike Dalton
Elaine C. Hebert                Tom Collins
Diane Burkett                Debbie Johnson
Jim Kiser                Margaret Paxton
Terry Hollenstain                Sally Garrison

Grace Hertz, Jamey and Mary Turner
Team Fletcher!
**********
**********
**********
I had already answer the questions, but I had been left with the urge
to find the specific recording and the details of it.

First thing that came to my mind after knowing by the piece that it
was going to be a tenor, was that it did not sound like an early
recording. I was actually thinking I would hear Pavarotti, but
immediately after Caruso started singing I could tell it had to be him.

Finding the answer was very easy, I googled "famous rigoletto
recordings" and found it in youtube right away, however, the version
I found in youtube did sound like a very early recording, so I knew
the one here had been remastered.

That led me to 2 questions: when was the original recording made
and when was it remastered.

As usual, found several misleading sites with it, some claiming 1907
and some 1908. But after being more specific about finding the whole
inventory of Caruso's recordings, found the file in the Victor library:
victor.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/200006957/B-6033-La_don
na_mobile which says that the recording was made in Candem in march
1908, contrary to what a lot of posters claimed of being in NYC in 1907.

One of my google searches insisted me to go to Amazon, which
apparently has a collection of all of his recordings (18 years of doing
it is a lot!). There, I found this specific one and that led me to an
album called "Caruso 2000";, which remastered several of his original
recordings.

This is the opening song of it.

www.amazon.com/Caruso-2000-Enrico/dp/B000031WTO/ref=ntt_mus_dp_dpt_8
**********
Enrico Caruso (February 25, 1873 – August 2, 1921)
was an Italian tenor. He sang to great acclaim at the
major opera houses of Europe and the Americas,
appearing in a wide variety of roles from the Italian and
French repertoires that ranged from the lyric to the
dramatic. Caruso also made approximately 290
commercially released recordings from 1902 to 1920. All
of these recordings, which span most of his stage
career, are available today on CDs and as digital
downloads.

Caruso's 1904 recording of "Vesti la giubba" from
Leoncavallo's opera Pagliacci was the first sound
recording to sell a million copies.
Enrico Caruso
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Caruso
Enrico Caruso was born in Naples in the Via San Giovannello agli Ottocalli 7 on
February 25, 1873.  He was the third of seven children and one of only three to survive
infancy. Caruso's father, Marcellino, was a mechanic and foundry worker. Initially,
Marcellino thought his son should adopt the same trade, and at the age of 11, the boy
was apprenticed to a mechanical engineer named Palmieri who constructed public
water fountains. During this period he sang in his church choir, and his voice showed
enough promise for him to contemplate a possible career in music.

Caruso was encouraged in his early musical ambitions by his mother, who died in 1888.
To raise cash for his family, he found work as a street singer in Naples and performed
at cafes and soirees. Aged 18, he used the fees he had earned by singing at an Italian
resort to buy his first pair of new shoes.

At the age of 22, Caruso made his professional stage debut in serious music. The date
was March 15, 1895 at the Teatro Nuovo in Naples. The work in which he appeared
Enrico Caruso Jr., an actor, singer and the last surviving son of the
great tenor, died after suffering a heart attack Thursday at his home
in Jacksonville, Fla. He was 82 years old.

Mr. Caruso was born on Sept. 7, 1904. His mother was the soprano
Ada Giachetti. Several years after his father's death in 1921, Mr.
Caruso moved to Hollywood, where he starred in two
Spanish-language motion pictures, ''The Fortune Teller'' (1934) and
''The Singer of Naples'' (1935).

Like his father, he was a tenor. In the late 1930's, he sang regular
concerts in California, and made a concert tour of Cuba. After World
War II, he gave up singing permanently and, under the name of
Henry De Costa, worked as a department head for the import-export
firm of Dunnington & Arnold until 1971. At the time of his death, he
had just completed a book of memoirs, entitled ''Enrico Caruso, My
Father and My Family,'' with Andrew Farkas.

He is survived by his wife, Harriett Covington Caruso, of
Jacksonville; two sons, Enrico Cesare, of Sacrofonto, Italy, and
Wladimiro, of Milan; a half-sister, Gloria Murray of Florida; two
grandchildren, and one great-grandson.
XXX
Gloria Caruso Murray, a visual artist
who was the last surviving child of
Enrico Caruso, died on Dec. 5 at St.
Luke's Hospital in Jacksonville, Fla. She
was 79 and had briefly tried to live up
to the musical world's sentimental
fantasy that she had inherited her
father's vocal abilities.

She died of cancer, said Aldo Mancusi,
curator of the Caruso Museum in
Brooklyn.

Only hours after his daughter's birth on
Dec. 18, 1919, at the Knickerbocker
was a now-forgotten opera, L'Amico Francesco, by
the amateur composer Domenico Morelli. A string
of further engagements in provincial opera houses
followed, and he received instruction from the
conductor and voice teacher Vincenzo Lombardi
that improved his high notes and polished his style.

During the final few years of the 19th century,
Caruso performed at a succession of theaters
throughout Italy until, in 1900, he was rewarded
with a contract to sing at La Scala in Milan, the
country's premier opera house. His La Scala debut
occurred on December 26 of that year in the part of
Rodolfo in Giacomo Puccini's La bohème with
Arturo Toscanini conducting. Audiences in Monte
Carlo, Warsaw and Buenos Aires also heard Caruso
sing during this pivotal phase of his career and, in
1899–1900, he appeared before the Tsar and the
Caruso as the Duke
in Rigoletto
Russian aristocracy at the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg and the Bolshoi
Theatre in Moscow as part of a touring company of first-class Italian singers.

The first major operatic role that Caruso was given the responsibility of creating was
Loris in Umberto Giordano's Fedora, at the Teatro Lirico, Milan, on November 17,
1898. At that same theater, on November 6, 1902, he would create the role of Maurizio
in Francesco Cilea's Adriana Lecouvreur. (Puccini considered casting the young Caruso
in the role of Cavaradossi in Tosca at its premiere in 1900, but ultimately chose the
older, more established Emilio De Marchi instead.)

Caruso took part in a "grand concert" at La Scala in February 1901 that Toscanini
organised to mark the recent death of Giuseppe Verdi. He embarked on his last series of
La Scala performances in March 1902, creating along the way the principal tenor part
in Germania by Alberto Franchetti.

A month later, he was engaged by the Gramophone & Typewriter Company to make
his first group of acoustic recordings, in a Milan hotel room, for a fee of 100 pounds
sterling. These 10 discs swiftly became best-sellers. Among other things, they helped to
spread 29-year-old Caruso's fame throughout the English-speaking world. The
management of London's Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, signed him for a season
of appearances in eight different operas ranging from
Verdi's Aida to Don Giovanni by Mozart. His
successful debut at Covent Garden occurred on May
14, 1902, as the Duke of Mantua in Verdi's Rigoletto.
Covent Garden's highest-paid diva, the Australian
soprano Nellie Melba, partnered him as Gilda. They
would sing together often during the early 1900s. In
her memoirs.

The following year, 1903, Caruso traveled to New
York City to take up a contract with the Metropolitan
Opera. (The gap between his London and New York
engagements was filled by a series of performances
in Italy, Portugal and South America.)  Caruso's
debut at the Met was in a new production of
Rigoletto on November 23, 1903. A few months
later, he began a lasting association with the Victor
Caruso in Pagliacci
Talking-Machine Company. He made his first American discs on February 1, 1904,
having signed a lucrative financial deal with Victor. Thereafter, his recording career ran
in tandem with his Met career, the one bolstering the other, until he died in 1921.

In addition to his regular New York engagements, Caruso gave recitals and operatic
performances in a large number of cities across the United States and sang in Canada.
He also continued to sing widely in Europe, appearing again at Covent Garden in 1904–
07 and 1913–14; and undertaking a UK tour in 1909. Audiences in France, Belgium,
Monaco, Austria, Hungary and Germany heard him, too, prior to the outbreak of World
War I. Caruso's fan base at the Met was not restricted, however, to the wealthy.
Members of America's middle-classes also paid to hear him sing—or buy copies of his
recordings—and he enjoyed a substantial following among New York's 500,000 Italian
immigrants.

From 1916 onwards, Caruso began adding heroic parts such as Samson, John of
Leyden, and Eléazar to his repertoire, while he planned to tackle Otello (the most
demanding role written by Verdi for the tenor voice)
at the Met during 1921.

Caruso toured the South American nations of
Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil in 1917, and two
years later performed in Mexico City. In 1920, he
was paid the then-enormous sum of 10,000 American
dollars a night to sing in Havana, Cuba.

The United States had entered World War I in 1917,
sending troops to Europe. Caruso did extensive
charity work during the conflict, raising money for
war-related patriotic causes by giving concerts and
participating enthusiastically in Liberty Bond drives.
The tenor had shown himself to be a shrewd
businessman since arriving in America. He put a
sizable proportion of his earnings from record
Caruso with gramophone.
royalties and singing fees into a range of investments. Biographer Michael Scott writes
that by the end of the war in 1918, Caruso's annual income tax bill amounted to
$154,000.

Dorothy Caruso noted that her husband's health began a distinct downward spiral in late
1920 after returning from a lengthy North American concert tour. In his biography,
Enrico Caruso, Jr. points to an on-stage injury suffered by Caruso as the possible
trigger of his fatal illness. A falling pillar in Samson and Delilah on December 3 had hit
him on the back, over the left kidney (and not on the chest as popularly reported). A
few days before a performance of Pagliacci at the Met (Pierre Key says it was
December 4, the day after the Samson and Delilah injury) he suffered a chill and
developed a cough and a "dull pain in his side". It appeared to be a severe episode of
bronchitis.

During a performance of L'elisir d'amore by Donizetti at the Brooklyn Academy of
Music on December 11, 1920, he suffered a throat haemorrhage and the performance
was canceled at the end of Act 1. Following this incident, a clearly unwell Caruso gave
only three more performances at the Met, the final
one being as Eléazar in Halévy's La Juive, on
December 24, 1920.

By Christmas Day, the pain in his side was so
excruciating that he was screaming. Dorothy
summoned the hotel physician, who gave Caruso
some morphine and codeine and called in another
doctor, Evan M. Evans. Evans brought in three
other doctors and Caruso finally received a correct
diagnosis: purulent pleurisy and empyema.

Caruso's health deteriorated further during the new
year. He experienced episodes of intense pain
because of the infection and underwent seven
surgical procedures to drain fluid from his chest
and lungs. He returned to Naples to recuperate
Caruso signing autographs.
from the most serious of the operations, during which part of a rib had been removed.
According to Dorothy Caruso, he seemed to be recovering, but allowed himself to be
examined by an unhygienic local doctor and his condition worsened dramatically after
that.

The Bastianelli brothers, eminent medical practitioners with a clinic in Rome,
recommended that his left kidney be removed. He was on his way to Rome to see them
but, while staying overnight in the Vesuvio Hotel in Naples, he took an alarming turn for
the worse and was given morphine to help him sleep.

Caruso died at the hotel shortly after 9:00 am local time, on August 2, 1921. He was 48.
The Bastianellis attributed the likely cause of death to peritonitis arising from a burst
subrenal abscess. The King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III, opened the Royal Basilica of
Hotel just a stone's throw from the old Metropolitan Opera House in
New York, Caruso, then the most famous operatic tenor in the world,
exuberantly tossed the girl into the air, peered into her mouth and
announced, ''Ah, she has the vocal cords, just like her daddy!''

A year and a half later, Caruso was dead at 48 -- a loss that nourished
a popular fantasy that his child would also have an extraordinary
voice.

At age 7, when she and her mother returned to New York from a
vacation in Europe, a New York newspaper ran the headline ''Gloria
Caruso, Here With a Voice'' and pronounced her ''a potential opera
star of the first magnitude.''

The next year she made her first record. At 11, she made her first
public appearance, delivering a radio address on behalf of a charity
headed by President Herbert Hoover. Later that year she made a test
recording for RCA Victor, and John McCormack, another renowned
tenor, gave her singing lessons and announced that she had promise.

The press had an immense appetite for even the slightest tidbits of
news about the great Caruso's daughter. But it gradually became
apparent that she did not have the voice to follow her father.

In 1942, Ms. Murray told a reporter that she was studying art at the
Art Students League in New York and that she had come to prefer
the visual arts to music. ''I've always been torn between art and
music,'' she said. ''Daddy drew and sculptured as a hobby. And
Mommy draws. Art is as much in the family as singing.''

In marrying Caruso, her mother, an American named Dorothy
Benjamin, created a tumult in 1918. Her father, Park Benjamin, a
wealthy patent lawyer and New York society figure, fiercely opposed
the match between his daughter, then 25, to Caruso, who was 45.
After the couple eloped, Park Benjamin disowned her. When he died
in 1925, he left her $1 from his substantial estate.

In 1943, Gloria Caruso married Ensign Michael Hunt Murray, who
had left Harvard to become a naval aviator in World War II. The
couple had two sons but later divorced.

Ms. Murray set up a studio in New York City where she painted both
portraits and landscapes. Later she lived in Miami and, for the last 10
years, in Jacksonville.

Andrew Farkas, co-author with Enrico Caruso Jr. of ''Enrico Caruso:
My Father and My Family'' (Amadeus Press, 1990), said that Ms.
Murray's paintings were ''of good quality, although she sold very
few.''

''She became rather reclusive,'' Mr. Farkas said, adding, ''She had
been answering questions about her father for a long time.'' Eric D.
Murray, one of Ms. Murray's sons, said his mother had become
occupied with managing the family estate after her mother died in
1957.

Matters were complicated because Caruso had left no will. In 1928, a
court in Trenton had ruled that Gloria Caruso was entitled to
two-thirds of the royalties on her father's phonograph records, sold
by the Victor Talking Machine Company.

Gloria Caruso attended Miss Hewitt's Classes in New York City, the
Ozanne School in Paris, the Bishop School in La Jolla, Calif., and
Miss Nixon's School in Florence, Italy.

In addition to her son Eric, of Maryland, she is survived by her other
son, Colin D. Murray of Jacksonville.

Mr. Farkas wrote that Enrico Caruso had four children from a
relationship with Ada Giacchetti, a soprano who had left her husband
to live with the tenor before his marriage to Miss Benjamin. Only one,
Enrico Caruso Jr., sought a career as a singer. All are deceased.
the Church of San Francesco di Paola for Caruso's
funeral, which was attended by thousands of people.
His embalmed body was preserved in a glass
sarcophagus at Del Pianto Cemetery in Naples for
mourners to view. In 1929, Dorothy Caruso had his
remains sealed permanently in an ornate stone tomb.

During his lifetime, Caruso received many orders,
decorations, testimonials and other kinds of honors
from monarchs, governments and miscellaneous
cultural bodies of the various nations in which he sang.
He was also the recipient of Italian knighthoods. In
1917, he was elected an honorary member of the Phi
Mu Alpha Sinfonia, the national fraternity for men
involved in music, by the fraternity's Alpha chapter of
the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston.
One unusual award bestowed on him was that of
Caruso's funeral procession
"Honorary Captain of the New York Police Force". Caruso was posthumously awarded
a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1987. On February 27 of that same year,
the United States Postal Service issued a 22-cent postage stamp in his honor. He was
voted into Gramophone Magazine's Hall of Fame in 2012.
Thanks to Sharon Levy for submitting
these articles about the first
public radio performance starring Enrico Caruso

TO HEAR OPERA BY WIRELESS
Experiment to be made at Metropolitan
at "Tosca" performance [sic]
New York Times
January 9, 1910


WIRELESS MELODY JARRED
An Interrupting Somebody Made of It
a Ticking Refrain Telling of Beer
New York Times
January 14, 1910


RADIO ACTIVITY: THE 100TH ANNIVERSARY
OF PUBLIC RADIO BROADCASTING
Smithsonian Magazine
January 26, 2010
XXX
ENRICO CARUSO DIES IN
NATIVE NAPLES; END CAME
SUDDENLY

Famous Tenor Succumbs
When Taken from Sorrento
for New Operation

New York Times
August 3, 1921