the words For as must as it hath pleased - - ' we therefore commit his body to the deep'
are repeated and at each interval comes, splash! as the weighted body plunges into the
sea, there to sink to a depth of about two miles. Splash, splash, splash.

Note: The original manuscript was deposited at the National Maritime Museum,
Greenwich, England. It is too fragile to copy but fortunately there is a typescript copy
accompanying it.
Magda Schleifer, 68, from Helsinki, reported that she knew her grandmother's sister
along with her sons had perished on the Titanic. The tragedy of the family history
resurfaced in a concrete way, when the DNA tests proved that the unknown child had
in fact been Eino.

The TV-series "Secrets of the Dead" contacted Schleifer about a month ago and asked
if she would agree to give a small blood sample for the DNA testing. Schleifer, who had
not heard of the unknown child before, said she wanted to help especially because her
own grandchildren were now about the same age as the unknown baby was when he

In the grave that was opened last year there were just one small wrist bone and three
teeth left of one of the youngest victims of the Titanic. In the coffin there was also a
copper pendant, perhaps placed there by the sailors, with the text "Our Babe".
Eino's mother Maria Emilia Ojala, together with her sons, had been on her way to
Pennsylvania, where her husband John Panula worked. Another Finn, who survived the
shipwreck, had later told Schleifer's grandmother that Maria Ojala and Eino had been
offered a seat on one of the lifeboats. Ojala, however, had refused to leave her other
four sons behind.

Eino Viljami Panula's family have decided that the boy's remains will stay in Halifax.

"The child has been looked after here, his memory lives in Halifax. Why change that?"
Schleifer said to Reuters.
“April 21st Two icebergs now clearly in sight, the nearest is over a hundred feet high at
the tallest peak, and an impressive sight, a solid mass of ice, against which the sea
dashes furiously, throwing up geyser like columns of foam, high over the topmost
summit, smothering the great mass at times completely in a cascade of spume as it
pours over the snow and breaks into feathery crests on the polished surface of the
berg, causing the whole ice-mountain, which glints like a fairy building, to oscillate
twenty to thirty feet from the vertical. The ocean is strewn with a litter of woodwork,
chairs, and bodies, and there are several growlers about, all more or less dangerous, as
they are often hidden in the swell.

The cutter lowered, and work commenced and kept up continuously all day, picking up
bodies. Hauling the soaked remains in saturated clothing over the side of the cutter is no
light task. Fifty one we have taken on board today, two children, three women, and
forty-six men, and still the sea seems strewn. With the exception of ourselves, the
bosum bird is the only living creature here.
Eino Viljami Panula
13 mos old child whose body was recovered from the Titanic
He was identified in 2002 by DNA testing.
Answer to Quiz #81 - October 15, 2006
Who was this child?
Why was he in the news in 2002, almost a century after he perished?
If you have a picture you'd like us to feature a picture in a future quiz, please
email it to us at If we use it, you will receive a free analysis of
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Quiz #81 Result
Click on thumbnail to view larger image.
Congratulations to our winners!

Stan Read                Theresa Verretto
Maureen O'Connor                Mary Fraser
Debbie Sterbinsky                Neil Ferguson
Rick Mackinney                Tonya Dillon
Lynda Snider                Kelly Fetherlin
Don Haase                Kitty Huddleston
Sandy Thompson                Diane Rogers
Anna Farris                Emily Aulicino
David Lepitre                George Wright
Norma Longmire                Susan Fortune
Raymond Cathcart                Bill Utterback
Carol Haueter                Pam Rein
Jim Kiser                Rick Norman
Vicki Hilb                Alice & Pete Miles
Randy Seaver                Sandy Fahrnbruch
Ruth Govorchin                Marilyn Hamill
Mark Brzys (aka Rudy Jenko)      Mary E. South            
Dale Niesen                Don Schulteis
Polly Kimmitt                John Chulick
Carol Phillips                Sherry Marshall
Fred Stuart                Evan Hindman
Wayne Snider                Mike Pfister
Susan M. Murphy                Elizabeth Mackie
Bill Wineburgh                Ruth Jenkins
Suzanne Adams                Theresa White
Eva Royal
"Hats Off" to you for another great quiz with such historic significance! In arriving at
the answer I didn't make use of the Nova Scotia flag among the stuffed animals, but
wonder if other contestants will use  this clue. The provincial flag of Nova Scotia (New
Scotland) uses the reversed colors of the national flag of Scotland. In the center of the
Nova Scotia flag is a shield of the royal arms of Scotland with a red lion representing
the "king" of beasts. A quick search on Google with "Nova Scotia unknown child"
leads to Eino Panula and the Titanic tragedy.                                             
Stan Read

Sometimes, I am amazed at the internet.  In this case, I entered the words, "body
unknown child 2002" into a Google search.  The first of 8.17M hits was an article
called 'Secrets of the Dead - Titanic's Ghosts, Clues and Evidence.'  The page included a photo of
the exact same tombstone as in the quiz photo.                                     
John Chulick

This was a difficult piece of research based on the lack of information in the
photograph. However, based on your questions I did a Yahoo search on "unknown
child 2002". The first two hits, and provided the facts and the
George Wright

Hi Colleen, Its a really sad story. My mother who was born in 1922 would not see the
movie Titanic when it came out a few years ago because she said she remembered how
even many years after the disaster, the grown ups would still talk about it and were still
really sad. What a terrible way to die. what a waste.                               
Tonya Dillon
Comments from Our Readers
Miss Susanna (Sanni) Riihivuori, 22, was born on 23 April 1889. The daughter of Juho
Riihivuori, she lived with her father in Ylihärmä, Western Finland . They were
neighbours of the Panula family and when the Panulas decided to go and live in to Coal
Centre, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, Sanni went with them (possibly to work as their maid).
She boarded the Titanic at Southampton with Maria Panula and her children on 10
April, 1912.

Sanni died in the sinking, her body was never found. Her father asked the fund for
money, but there are no records of any payments however, £50 was paid out in
Encyclopedia Titanica
Susanna Juhantytär "Sanni" Riihivuori
From the Diary of Frederick Hamilton, Cable Engineer
on the Rescue Ship Mackey-Bennett
Titanic Exhibit
Colleen…the historical museum of Miami just finished a 6 month run of the Titanic
Artifact Exhibit ….last summer Laurie and I did the tour...whoa!...those people in
steerage never had a chance….we purchased the artifact guide book and I scanned
some pics for you.                                                                 
Rick Mackinney
In a Nutshell
Eino Viljami Panula was just over a year old when his mother boarded the Titanic as
a third class passenger with him and his four brothers.  Eino's mother, Emilia Maria
Ojala, and father, Juho Panula, had married on February 14, 1892 before immigrating to
Coal Center, a small community near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Five children were born
in Coal Center before the family moved back to a small farm in western Finland in
1904. There, two more children were born, including Eino on March 10, 1911. Shortly
Titanicin tuntematon lapsi
(The Unknown Child of the Titanic)

by Ulla Appelsin:
Language: Finnish
Publisher: Gummerus Kustannus Oy
ISBN: 9512064081
Hardcover, 223 pages
Available: 01 August 2003
Price: 31,50 euros
thereafter, the Panulas decided to move back to Coal
Center,and Juho preceded his family to the U.S. sometime
in 1910 or 1911. Maria stayed, finalizing the sale of the
family's farm on February 1, 1912 before booking
third-class tickets for her family on the Titanic to join her
husband in America. None of the family members traveling
on the Titanic survived the disaster.

On November 6, 2002, Alan Ruffman and Dr. Ryan Parr
announced that the remains of the "unknown child" had
finally been identified through DNA analysis. Blood samples
provided by descendants of a child from Finland named
Eino Panula matched the DNA extracted from the tiny bone
fragment recovered from Fairview Lawn Cemetery. Panula
family members were located and brought to Halifax,
Fairview Cemetery to unite with this lost child.

This story was featured on the PBS show
Secrets of the
Magda Schleifer stands at the
grave of her uncle, Eino
Panula, formerly known as the
"unknown child.
The Panula Family's Tragedy
Fairview Cemetery in Halifax, Nova Scotia, is a famous Canadian cemetery. In
addition to many of the city's business and cultural elite, at Halifax's Fairview Cemetery,
121 victims of the Titanic disaster are interred, several of whom have never been
identified. Another 29 victims who were recovered are buried in Halifax and can be
located at the Roman Catholic Mount Olivet Cemetery and the Jewish Baron de Hirsch

One of the prominent headstones of the Titanic victims at Fairview was for an
unidentified child found at the site of the wreck, and the youngest victim recovered. As
no one claimed the child, he was buried with funding from the sailors of the recovery
ship which found him. The headstone bears the inscription 'Erected to the memory of
an unknown child whose remains were recovered after the disaster of the
"Titanic" April 15th 1912'. Ultimately, the identity of this child was determined in early
November 2002, as thirteen month old Eino Viljami Panula of Finland, using DNA
evidence. Eino, his mother, and four brothers all died in the Titanic disaster.,_Halifax,_Nova_Scotia
For further information:

DNA Test Confirms Identity of Titanic’s Youngest Victim

The Titanic Disaster:  Dentistry's Role in the Identification of an "Unknown
Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, 2004: (70)1, 24-8
(Gives a detailed explanation of how the testing was done and how the samples were
compared to the relatives of various candidates for the unknown child.)

N.P.R. 'Titanic Baby'
Audio Clip, Interview with Ryan Parr, anthropologist, Lakehead University:

Stories of the Finns on the Titanic

Graves of the Titanic passengers
member of their family. Body number 4 was that of the ‘Unknown Child’. The
exhumations occurred on May 17 and 18, 2001, under strict forensic conditions.

There are two kinds of DNA, nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA. [When remains are
to be examined for DNA analysis], mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is preferred because
its molecules are present in hundreds to thousands of copies per cell compared to
nuclear DNA, which contains two copies per cell. After ninety years decomposing in
the ground, any remnants of the bodies would be scarce, and mtDNA would be much
more likely to provide an adequate sample. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited from the
mother only, so in order to compare the samples they were hoping to get from the
corpse, mtDNA needed to be obtained from maternally related relatives...Ruffman
enlisted the help of Swedish genealogists to locate a distant relative of Ola and Lars,
John Heylan, who is a maternal cousin to Gosta.

Ruffman enlisted the help of Swedish genealogists to locate a distant relative of Ola and
Lars, John Heylan, who is a maternal cousin to Gosta.

Perched higher up on the slope, the grave of body #4 escaped the erosive effects of
water damage, and scientists found a 6 cm sliver of bone and three teeth in the grave of
the "unknown child." An analysis of these teeth by two separate dental experts showed
that they belonged, not to a two-year-old, but to a child less than one year of age. This
revelation suggested that Gosta [Paulson] might not be the "unknown child," and a
DNA comparison performed at Lakehead University and at the Kuvin Center for the
Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at Hebrew University in Jerusalem proved
that, indeed, body #4 was not Gosta Paulson. The teeth suggested that whoever filed
the original coroner's report, misestimated the age of the child. Furthermore, the age of
the teeth also eliminated the possibility that two other potential third-class passengers,
two-year-olds Eugene Francis Rice from Ireland and Sidney Leslie Goodwin of
England, might be the "unknown child." Nevertheless, the search continued, focusing
on three more third-class passengers: a five-month-old child from Sweden, a seven-
month-old child from England, and a thirteen-month-old child from Finland.

The ‘Unknown Child’ Identified

Following the work performed [at the] laboratory [at the University of Toronto],
confirming the presence of dentin in tooth 84, the teeth were returned to Parr at
Lakehead University. From there, tooth 84 was taken to the ancient DNA laboratory of
Dr. Scott Woodward of Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, where non-nuclear
DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), was recovered from the dentin. All
mtDNA is inherited from our mothers and, within the molecule, is archived a
biochemical ‘family name’ that is not only stable but persists in maternal family lines for
generations. Parr and Woodward also obtained a new extraction of mtDNA from the
bone fragment that had none of the contamination problems previously encountered.

As a result, the mtDNA from tooth 84 and from the bone fragment were found to
match, so that the researchers knew they had the true mtDNA of body number 4.
Geneologists were able to track down living maternal relatives of all the children under
age 3 who perished on the Titanic and were able to obtain DNA samples from them.

There were 2 of the candidate male children within the estimated age-range who had
the same mtDNA: Sidney Leslie Goodwin, aged 19 months, from Melksham in
southern England; and Eino Viljam Panula, aged 13 months, from Ylihärmä in Finland.
When the mtDNA results came in from the direct maternal descendants of the Goodwin
and the Panula children, both had the same mtDNA. As it turned out, their mtDNA is
found in over 15% of indigenous Caucasians of northern Europe, indicating that
somewhere in the past 2,000 years, the 2 families had a common maternal antecedent.
Because of the early stage of dental development of body number 4, however, the
Finnish child (13-month-old Eino Viljam Panula) was finally identified as
the ‘Unknown Child’.
The Discovery of the Identity of the "Unknown Child" through DNA Testing
The Salvage Operation

Those identified as first class passengers were placed in wooden coffins which were
stored aft while third class passengers and crew were wrapped in canvas and placed
for'rd. In all 328 bodies were recovered including one child. It was thought at the time
that this was Gösto Leonard Paulson, the youngest of four sons travelling with their
mother Alma Paulson. Of the remainder 119 were buried at sea of which 60 were
unidentified and the remaining 209 were taken to Halifax.

The seventy five members of the crew of the Mackay Bennett adopted the child, paying
for his funeral and headstone. He was one of forty-four unknown victims buried in the
Fairview Lawn Cemetery. Recently attempts to identify some of these victims using
DNA was undertaken, but only that of the child succeeded. It was established that he
was Eino Viljami Panula aged 13 months, from Finland, one of five children travelling
with their mother Marie.

Read a more detailed account of salvage operations with pictures by clicking here.
Following the loss of the Titanic in
April 1912 the White Star Line
chartered four ships, of which two
were cable ships, CS Mackay
Bennett, owned by the Commercial
Cable Company and CS Minia owned
by the Anglo American Telegraph
Company but operated by Western
Union. All those recovered were
brought to the Mackay Bennett where
if it was possible they were identified
and all personal possessions were
removed and stored safely.
A most tragic account, the father Mr John Panula, had left Finland before, and was
waiting for the rest of the family to immigrate to Coal Centre, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
where John had recently renovated a nice house. Mr Panula got the news of the
Titanic's sinking only on the 21st of April, hearing that all of the family had gone down
with the ship. For one week John was left to speculate whether, if any of his family
had survived.

Mrs Maria Panula (nee Ojala) had sold their family farm in Yliharma, Western Finland to
immigrate to America. The couple had previously lived in Coal Center, but had returned
to Finland in 1910. On the Titanic, Master Ernesti (16) and Master Jaako (14) were
placed in a bow cabin (reserved for single men), whereas Maria was placed in a family
cabin in the stern along with the smaller children, Master Juha (7), Master Urho (2) and
Master William (1). Sharing the cabin was Miss Sanni Riihivuori (22), who was
travelling with the Panula's as their neighbour from home, as well as Miss Anna Turja
(18). All of the Panula's were lost, as was Sanni Riihivuori. Miss Turja was saved and
later recalled that one of the sons had come from the bow to them, shouting "wake up,
everybody, the Titanic is sinking. Otherwise you'll soon find yourselves at the bottom
of the ocean."

During the chaos, Maria Panula lost contact with some of the children and Anna Turja
found her sitting on the deck in a state of shock. Crying, she told how one of her
children had already drowned in Finland - would they all have to die now??...Anna
managed to board one of the last lifeboats.

According to newspaper reports, Maria and her sons left Finland on April 3 and were in
Southampton by April 7. She wrote a letter to John, telling him the time they had left
Finland and the time they expected to reach the United States.

The Panula's children were:

Ernesti Arnold, age 16, born Coal Center, PA, 18 May 1895
Jaako Arvid, age 14, born Coal Center, PA, 8 December 1897
Juha Niilo, age 7, born Coal Center, PA, 1 September 1904
Urho Abraham, age 2, born Yliharma, Vaasa, Finland, 25 April 1909
Eino Viljami, age 13 mos, born Yliharma, Vaasa, Finland, 10 March 1911

The couple also had two daughters born in Coal Center, Emma, b. 1901, and Lyydia, b.
1903.  Lyydia died of a mild fever at the age of 4 mos, and Emma drowned while
picking flowers when she was 9 yrs old. She died while the family was living in the US
the first time, prior to returning to Finland.
The deck of the Mackay-Bennett showing
corpses retrieved from the ocean.
Fairview Cemetery, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Next of Kin
The Titanic Ancient DNA Project was begun in the late
summer of 1998.5 Dr. Ryan Parr, vice-president of
research and development of Genesis Genomics Inc. (on
the campus of Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ont.)
and Alan Ruffman, president of Geomarine Associates Ltd.
in Halifax, applied for and received permission to excavate
and exhume the remains from the graves of bodies number
240, 281 and 4 at the Fairview Lawn Cemetery. This
application was made on behalf of 3 different groups of
families who were hoping to identify a particular body as a
Dr. Alan Ruffmann
Ernesti Panula
Ernesti & Jaakko
Panula 1898
Lyydia Panula
2 mos old, 1903
(Died of a fever 2
months later)
Juha Panula
7 yrs old
Mar 12, 1912
Juha Panula
3 yrs old
Sep 1, 1907
Urha Panula
2 yrs old
Jan 13, 1912
Eino Panula
13 mos
Mar 23, 1912
Emma Panula
3 yrs old
Emma Panula
9 yrs old
Feb 4, 1910
Drowned Apr 8, 1910
The Panula Family
For a discussion by a descendant of the Panula family on the Encyclopedia Titanica
Message Board, click
There was a great confusion and babble of
tongues, [Helka] Hirvonen said. "Many of the third
class passengers could not understand English and
didn't know what was being shouted to
them."....One of the last persons I saw before
leaving was Mrs. John Paluna (sic). I knew her
well.  She was so much confused, poor woman,
that she hardly knew which way to turn. She was
one of the last to come on deck. I presume she
was trying to collect her family. None of them

Read more by clicking on the thumbnail of the
newspaper article (left).
The Survivor's  Stories
The Valley Independent
Wednesday, April 15, 1998
If you enjoy our quizzes, don't forget to order our book!
Eino Panula's Shoes
Read story.
Percent of each class passenger saved.
5.p.m. The two bergs are now
in transit, the heavy swell has
been rolling all day, must be a
gale somewhere.

8.p.m. The tolling of the bell
summoned all hands to the
forecastle where thirty bodies
are ready to be committed to the
deep, each carefully weighed
and carefully sewn up in canvas.
It is a weird scene, this
gathering. The crescent moon is
shedding a faint light on us, as
the ship lays wallowing in the
great rollers. The funeral service
is conducted by the Reverent
Canon Hind, for nearly an hour
Embalming the dead on the deck of the
Maria & Juha
14 Feb 1892