Quiz #74 Results - August 25, 2006
Who is the next
person in this
series?

Abraham Lincoln

Thomas Jefferson

Franklin Roosevelt

George Washington

John Kennedy

?????
?
Hint: Your answer should make sense.
**********
Answers:
Either Dwight David Eisenhower or Sacagawea.

Dwight Eisenhower is the U.S. President who appeared on the U.S. $1 piece.
Sacagawea is appears on the U.S. $1 piece now.

Please pardon my typo - I meant "Your answer should make cents."  :-)
**********
Tip for solving this quiz:

If you type "Lincoln, Jefferson, Roosevelt, Washington, Kennedy" (with the quotation
marks) into the Google search engine (www.google.com), you will get many hits with
the names of these presidents in this order that related to their appearance on U.S. coins.
**********
Note:

In the past 30 years there have been three one-dollar coins. The Eisenhower dollar was
produced from 1971-1978; the Susan B. Anthony dollar was produced from
1979-1980, then again in 1999; and a one-dollar coin bearing the portrait of Sacagewea
and her infant son was released in 2000.
**********
U.S. Coins Featuring Presidents of the United States
More Info
More Info
More Info
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U.S. Coins Featuring Women
With regard to the total number of real women ever portrayed on U.S. coins, [the
records of the U.S. Mint]show the following:

Circulating Coins:

Sacagewea on the dollar coin: 1999-Present
Susan B. Anthony on the dollar coin: 1979-1981

Commemorative Coins:

Queen Isabella of Spain on the Columbian Exposition Quarter Dollar: 1893
Eunice Kennedy Shriver Silver Dollar: 1995
Virginia Dare, with her mother Eleonor Dare, on the Roanoke Island, North Carolina
Half Dollar: 1937

(Virginia Dare is mentioned by name on page 6 the Annual Report of the Director of the
Mint for FY 1937.  Other publications, such as R.S. Yeoman's "Guide Book of United
States Coins," and Q. David Bowers' "Commemorative Coins of the United States: A
Complete Encyclopedia," have identified her mother as Eleonor Dare.)  Although it
could be argued that the mother and daughter images on the Roanoke coin don't fall
into the classical "portrait" category, all available evidence indicates that the image was
meant to represent real people.

Therefore, four real women have been portrayed on U.S. coins in the history of the
U.S. Mint.
http://www.usmint.gov/about_the_mint/fun_facts/index.cfm?flash=yes&action=fun_facts8
Sacagawea
Susan B Anthony
Queen Isabella
More Info
More Info
More Info
Eunice Kennedy
Virginia Dare Stamp
More Info
More Info
**********
The Eisenhower Dollar
The Eisenhower Dollar is a dollar coin issued by the United
States government from 1971–1978 (not to be confused with the
Eisenhower commemorative dollar of 1990.) The Eisenhower
Dollar followed the Peace Dollar and is named for General and
President Dwight David Eisenhower, who appears on the
obverse. Both the obverse and the reverse of the coin were
designed by Frank Gasparro.

The Eisenhower Dollar was struck with a copper-nickel
composition for circulation and was the first United States dollar
coin to not be struck in a precious metal, although special
collectors' issues were struck at the San Francisco Mint in a
silver-copper composition. The Eisenhower Dollar was struck to
celebrate Dwight D. Eisenhower, who died in 1969, and the
Apollo 11 moon landing of the same year. It was minted for only
a seven year period. The coins were often saved as mementos of Eisenhower but never
saw much circulation outside of casinos. Special Bicentennial issues were minted in
1975 and 1976.

Special reverses were added to all quarter dollar, half dollar, and dollar coins minted in
1975 and 1976 to celebrate the bicentennial of America's independence. In addition, the
date was shown as 1776-1976 for the quarters, half dollars, and dollars minted in 1975
and 1976. The reverse of the Eisenhower Dollar was designed by Dennis Williams and
shows the Liberty Bell in front of the moon.
The Sacagawea Golden Dollar
The Golden Dollar coin, as required by the United States $1 Coin
Act of 1997 ( Public Law 105-124, Sec. 4), has a golden color,
has the same diameter as the Susan B. Anthony Dollar Coin, has
a smooth edge (in contrast to the reeded, or grooved, edge of
the Susan B. Anthony Dollar Coin), and has a wider border than
other current U.S. circulating coinage. The use of a gold-colored
alloy, the smooth edge, and the wider border all ensure the
Golden Dollar coin is easily distinguishable from other coins for
both the sighted and the seeing-impaired. Golden Dollars were
released into circulation on January 27, 2000.

Why did the United States Mint decide to use the "g"
spelling of Sacagawea?

Historical records use conflicting spellings of her name. Based
on several highly regarded contemporary works, the Mint decided to use the
"Sacagawea" spelling. To quote one work: "Translated, her name means 'Bird Woman',
and in their attempts to spell the Indians words, Lewis and Clark used variations of
'Sah-ca-gah-we-ah' and 'Sah-kah-gar-we-a.' (In 1814, when a version of the journals
appeared, an editor changed the spelling to Sacajawea, which was the preferred spelling
until recently, when most historians and official publications reverted to Sacagawea.)"

Dayton Duncan and Ken Burns Lewis & Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery,
An Illustrated History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997
**********
Sacajawea
Sacajawea, a Shoshoni Native American, was born c. 1788 near
the Continental Divide at the present-day Idaho-Montana border.
When she was twelve years old, a Hidatsa raiding party captured
her near the Missouri River's headwater and took her away from
her tribe. She was then sold or gambled into the possession of a
French-Canadian fur-trader and trapper named Toussaint
Charbonneau, who made her his wife. At the time, Charbonneau
had another wife named Otter Woman, also a Native American.

In the winter of 1804-1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition
wintered at Fort Mandan. The Expedition was searching for a
http://search.eb.com/women/art-52382
hypothesized Northwest Passage-- a water-route linking the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans--and needed an interpreter of Indian languages in the Great Plains and Rocky
Mountain regions they would be traveling. They hired Charbonneau, but because he did
not speak Sacagawea's language and because the expedition party needed to
communicate with the Shoshones to acquire horses to cross the mountains, the
explorers agreed that the pregnant Sacagawea should also accompany them. On Feb.
11, 180 while at Fort Mandan, Sacajawea (then around 16) gave birth to a boy named
Jean Baptiste and nicknamed "Pomp" (Shoshoni for "First-Born"). Sacajawea would
carry the infant with her for 8,000 miles over the course of the expedition, all the way
to the Pacific and back. Soon everyone on the expedition grew to love the little boy.

Charbonneau, who at 46 was the oldest
man on the expedition, was always
causing problems, while his young
Shoshoni wife was constantly solving
them. Since the expedition had officially
hired Charbonneau, and not Sacajawea,
Sacajawea never received pay for her
help. Nevertheless, she saved the
expedition considerable trouble time and
again. When Charbonneau's poor
boatmanship in a storm nearly flipped one
Route of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804–06
http://search.eb.com/women/art-90448
of Lewis and Clark's boats, causing many supplies to fall into the water, it was
Sacajawea's quick thinking that saved the items, including scientific instruments, books,
and journals. During the next week Lewis and Clark named a tributary of Montana's
Mussellshell River "Sah-ca-gah-weah,” or “Bird Woman's River," after her.

When it came time to barter with a group of Shoshoni for horses, not only could
Sacajawea translate, but it turned out that the chief of the tribe was her long lost
brother Cameahwait. As a result of Sacajawea's connections, the expedition received a
generous number of horses. On the way back from the Pacific, Sacajawea led the
explorers through the Bozeman Pass in the Rocky Mountains. Throughout the
expedition, Sacajawea collected numerous roots and berries, helping to feed the men
through difficult times. Perhaps most importantly, the presence of a Native American
woman with a baby served as a sign to various Indian groups, especially the Nez Perce,
that the Lewis and Clark Expedition was not a war party, and hence should not be
attacked.

Despite the hardships she faced along the way, Sacajawea never complained throughout
the grueling journey. At the end of the expedition, she was not paid, since she had never
been formally hired. The Charbonneau family disengaged from the expedition party
upon their return to the Mandan-Hidatsa villages;
Charbonneau eventually received $409.16 and 320 acres
(130 hectares) for his services. Clark wanted to do more
for their family, so he offered to assist them and eventually
secured Charbonneau a position as an interpreter.

The family traveled to St. Louis in 1809 to baptize their son
and left him in the care of Clark, who had earlier offered to
provide him with an education. Shortly after the birth of a
daughter named Lisette, a woman identified only as
Charbonneau's wife (but believed to be Sacagawea) died at
http://search.eb.com/women/art-90087
the end of 1812 at Fort Manuel, near present-day Mobridge, S.D. Clark became the
legal guardian of Lisette and Jean Baptiste and listed Sacagawea as deceased in a list he
compiled in the 1820s. Some biographers and oral traditions contend that it was another
of Charbonneau's wives who died in 1812 and that Sacagawea went to live among the
Comanches, started another family, rejoined the Shoshones, and died on Wyoming's
Wind River Reservation on April 9, 1884. These accounts can likely be attributed to
other Shoshone women who shared similar experiences as Sacagawea.

Sacagawea's son, Jean Baptiste, traveled throughout Europe before returning to enter
the fur trade. He scouted for explorers and helped guide the Mormon Battalion to
California before becoming an alcalde, a hotel clerk, and a gold miner. Lured to the
Montana goldfields following the Civil War, he died en route near Danner, OR on May
16, 1866. Little is known of Lisette's whereabouts prior to her death on June 16, 1832;
she was buried in the Old Catholic Cathedral Cemetery in St. Louis. Charbonneau died
on Aug. 12, 1843.

In 2001 U.S. President Bill Clinton granted her a posthumous decoration as an honorary
sergeant in the regular army.

http://search.eb.com/women/article-9064641 and
http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/sacajawea/summary.html
**********
Paper Money
Known as "Dead Presidents" in the Vernacular
http://www.who2.com/OnTheMoney.html

George Washington = $1
Abraham Lincoln = $5
Alexander Hamilton = $10
Andrew Jackson = $20
Ulysses S. Grant = $50
Benjamin Franklin = $100
William McKinley = $500
Grover Cleveland = $1,000
James Madison = $5,000
Salmon P. Chase = $10,000
Woodrow Wilson = $100,000
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Comments from our Readers
Well, my answer finally made "cents" to me. After making a spread sheet including
dates of birth, death, presidential years, wives names, number of children place of birth,
State of birth and death. I also looked up all monuments and the dates of dedication
hoping that they were created in the necessary sequence.

Finally I zeroed in on the artist Charles Fagan who did portraits of all presidents and he
is the living artist commissioned to do all of the presidents for CSpan and won the
Peabody award in 1999.  I could not locate a sequence of when each portrait was
completed so out of luck there. I re-read the "hint" and immediately went to look at
currencies and coins.

Dad gum it you made something very simple difficult.  I should have known after the
stamp episode in Rushville.
                                                                                              
Jim Kiser
                            **********

There is really an off beat way of looking at the heights of the presidents and
determining that Gerald Ford is next on the list:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_Presidents_by_height_order
Abraham Lincoln
skip 1
Thomas Jefferson
skip 2
Franklin Roosevelt
skip 1
George Washington
skip 2
John F. Kennedy
skip 1
Gerald Ford

Only a math major or computer programmer would look at a list and come up with that.
So, have a laugh on such an offbeat answer.
                                                                                             
Judy Pfaff
                             **********

I was watching a favorite show last night and this popped up with 4 of the 5 presidents
in your list:
http://www.cbs.com/latenight/lateshow/great_presidential_speeches/
If Jefferson were on the list, then George W. Bush would be the answer.  My brain
was working overtime.
                                                             
                    Judy Pfaff (Again)
                             **********

Hi Colleen, I chose Eisenhower over Susan B Anthony since the others were all male
and Presidents. Besides, I hate those S.B.A. coins that sometimes get into my purse.
                                                           
                  Margaret Waterman
                             **********

Congratulations on another great quiz! I must confess that my good wife (of 55 years)
saw your hint pun and steered me toward coins.                                       
Stan Read

                             **********

It bothers me when I read about Sacajawea that her husband seldom receives
recognition for his services. He did a lot of translation himself and guiding and work yet
who remembers his name. Or where he came from.
                                                                                          Dave Lepitre
                             **********

Hint: Your answer should make sense. Love that pun, about a dollar and ninety-one
cents!
                                                                                                Fred Stuart
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Congratulations to Our Winners!

Judy Pfaff                Elaine C. Hebert
Eva Royal                David Lepitre
Delores Martin                Margaret Waterman
Stan Read                Fred Stuart
Marty Guidry                Edee Scott
Dale Niesen                Anna Farris
Jim Kiser                Vicki Hilb
Susan Fortune                Phyllis Barratia
Rick Mackinney                Misty Bogle
Richard Seidel                Elizabeth Mackie
Dick Klopshinske                Mary Fraser
Debbie Sterbinsky                Marilyn Hamill
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Quiz #74 Results
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