Saluting Women's History Month!
Quiz #53 Answers - March 19, 2006
I have something
unusual in common
with these two people,
and I would feel very
uncomfortable in the
scene below.
Who am I?
In memory of Margaret Rose Bernard, the little girl on the bar and my grandmother.
September 17, 1903 - April 27, 1993
Carry Nation
My two friends are Lizzie Borden and George Washington.
We are all pretty handy with an axe.

Lizzie Borden supposedly murdered her father & step-mother with a hatchet;
George Washington alledgedly chopped down a cherry tree with a hatchet; and,
Carrie Nation was well noted for using a hatchet to destroy casks of alcohol in
her quest for temperance.
The key to solution to this quiz is the sign hanging
behind the bar to the left. It says:
"All Nations Welcome Except Carrie Nation"
Known as the "Battle-Ax" for her extreme smashing of
saloons, Carry A. Nation was one of the leading
figureheads of the Temperance Movement. Her guts,
determination, and unrelentless nature was sometimes
shadowed by other impressions of her as "Mother
Nation", a kind grandmotherly woman out for the
improvement of life. Wether she was the "Battle-Ax" or
"Mother Nation" her cause was the same: To rid the
world of the evils of booze.
Carrie Amelia Nation (November 25, 1846 – June 9, 1911) was perhaps the most
famous person to emerge from the temperance movement—the battles against alcohol
in pre-Prohibition America—due to her habit of attacking saloons with a hatchet. She
has been the topic of numerous books, articles and even a 1966 opera at the University
of Kansas.

Born Carrie Moore in Garrard County, Kentucky, Nation attributed her passion for
fighting liquor to a failed first marriage to an alcoholic. She got her myth-making last
name from her second husband, David Nation.

The spelling of her first name is ambiguous; both "Carrie" and "Carry" are considered
correct. Official records list the former, and she
herself used that spelling most of her life; the latter
was used by her father in the family Bible. Upon
beginning her campaign against liquor in the early 20th
century, she adopted the name Carry A. Nation mainly
for its value as a slogan, and had it registered as a
trademark in the state of Kansas.

Carry Amelia Moore was born in Garrard County,
Kentucky, on November 25, 1846. Her family moved
several times before settling in Cass County, Missouri.
Carry said she was a selfish child who at times was sickly. This photo from Carry's
autobiography shows Carry at age six (above) with her mother and sister.

At the age of ten Carry attended a church meeting at Hickman's Mill, Missouri, where
she experienced a religious conversion. A relative remarked, "Carry, I believe you know
what you are doing."

In 1865 she met Dr. Charles Gloyd, and they were married on November 21, 1867.
Gloyd was, by all accounts, a severe alcoholic; they separated shortly before the birth
of their daughter, Charlien, and he died less than a year later, in 1869. Nation attributed
her passion for fighting liquor to her failed first marriage to heavy-drinking Gloyd.

Nation acquired a teaching certificate, but was unable to make ends meet in this field.
She then met Dr. David A. Nation, an attorney, minister and newspaper editor, nineteen
years her senior. They were married on December 27, 1877, and moved to a cotton
plantation near Houston, Texas. Dr. Nation became involved in the Jaybird-Woodpecker
War, and as a result was forced to move back north in 1889, this time to Medicine
Lodge, Kansas, where David found work preaching at a Christian church, and Carrie
ran a successful hotel. It was while in Medicine Lodge that she began her temperance

In 1881 Kansas outlawed the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. The law,
however, was generally ignored. During the next 20 years, many Kansans who
witnessed alcohol's devastating effects fought to get
the laws enforced.

The prohibition movement appealed to many women
because it allowed them a means to act at a time
when they could not vote. Bribery, fraud, and
drunkenness at the polls were all reasons 19th century
politicians gave for denying women the vote. It was
argued that the political process would corrupt these
feminine guardians of family and home.

On the other hand, reformers believed woman's moral
superiority would purify politics rather than degrade
women. Prohibitionists adopted this argument after
seeing many families destroyed by a father's
alcoholism. This is one reason Carry Nation called her
supporters "Home Defenders." She sold buttons
printed with this phrase to promote her cause.

A large woman (nearly 6 feet tall and 175 pounds) she
Carrie's Axe
described herself as "a bulldog running along at the feet of Jesus, barking at what he
doesn't like," and claimed a divine ordination to promote temperance by smashing up

Alone or accompanied by hymn-singing women, she would march into a bar and sing
and pray, while smashing bar fixtures and stock with a hatchet. Between 1900 and
1910 she was arrested some 30 times, and paid her jail fines from lecture-tour fees and
sales of souvenir hatchets. She published newsletters and later in life even appeared in

Nation was a member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, founded in 1874,
which dealt with issues ranging from health and hygiene, prison reform and world

She died after a period of hospitalization in Leavenworth, Kansas, on June 9, 1911 and
buried in an unmarked grave in Belton City Cemetery in Belton, Missouri. The Women's
Christian Temperance Union later erected a stone inscribed "Faithful to the Cause of
Prohibition, She Hath Done What She Could."

For further information on Carry Nation:

Carry A. Nation: The Famous and Original Bar Room Smasher

The Use and Need of the Life of Carrie A. Nation

Biography and pictures
Lizzie Borden
Lizzie Borden took an axe
And gave her mother forty whacks.
Wen she saw what she had done
She gave her father forty-one.
Lizzie Borden born July 19, 1860, Fall River, Mass., was charged with murdering her
stepmother and father; her trial became a national sensation in the United States.

Lizzie's mother died in 1862 leaving two daughters. Her father Andrew Borden, an
affluent businessman, was only interested in money. He was worth $500,000 in gold
but refused to install plumbing in his home. He was strict with others and tight with his
money. Andrew married spinster Abby Durfee Gray, 38 in 1865, when Lizzie was
three and Emma was 12. Abby rarely left home except to visit her half-sister.

Both daughters were upset about their father withdrawing their inheritance for Abby.
Lizzie and Emma were constantly upset with them, usually over financial matters. Five
years before the murders, when Andrew put a rental house in Abby's name, Lizzie and
Emma were so enraged; Andrew bought each daughter a house of equal value as

On the day preceding the murders, August 3, Lizzie tried to procure illegal prussic
acid. In the trial, the pharmacist's testimony was excluded. On the same day, for the
first time in five years, Lizzie had lunch with Abby and Andrew. That evening she
visited Alice Russell where she recounted stories about her father's enemies before
returning home and going straight to her room since Uncle John was spending the

On a hot August 4, 1892 at 92 Second Street in Fall River, Massachusetts, Bridget
("Maggie") Sullivan, the maid in the Borden family residence rested in her bed after
having washed the outside windows.  She heard the bell at City Hall ring and looked at
her clock: it was eleven o'clock. A cry from Lizzie Borden, the younger of two Borden
daughters broke the silence: "Maggie, come down! Come down quick; Father's dead;
somebody came in and killed him."  A half hour or so later, after the body--"hacked
almost beyond recognition"--of Andrew Borden had been covered and the downstairs
searched by police for evidence of an intruder, a neighbor who had come to comfort
Lizzie, Adelaide Churchill, made a grisly discovery on the second floor of the Borden
home: the body of Abby Borden, Lizzie's step-mother.  Investigators found Abby's
body cold, while Andrew's had been discovered warm, indicating that Abby was killed
earlier--probably at least ninety minutes earlier--than her husband.  

Two days after the murder, papers began reporting evidence that thirty-three-year-old
Lizzie Borden might have had something to do with her parents' murders...

Read more about Lizzie Borden, her trial, and the murder for which she was acquitted
Note:  The connection with George Washington is that he alledgedly chopped down his
father's cherry tree.  When confronted wit the crime, he supposedly said, "I cannot tell
a lie - I chopped down the cherry tree."

If this is a true story, he might be the first, the last, and perhaps the
only, politician to
go out of his way to tell the truth.
Our Readers' Comments
Bobbi Sims

Carrie Nation had in common with first president George Washington the establishment
of temperance societies/associations.  Established in 1840, the first movement in the US
which brought about a large scale rehabilitation of alcoholics, was named the
"Washington Temperance Society" in honor of the first US president.

Peter St. Wecker

You're Carrie Nation, and I'll find you (along with Lizzie Borden and Young George
Washington) in the axe/hatchet sharpening section of history's hardware store.  
Welcome, Carrie!  I raise my glass to you (just don't ask what's in the glass....)

John Chulick

Only when I looked up Lizzie Borden on Wikipedia  and confirmed that the picture
was her did the axe idea hit me (so to speak).  

Mary Fraser

Since the sign says “All nations welcome except Carrie Nation,” I’d guess that you’re
members of the “Temperance Union”.

Lizzie: “Lizzie never dated; she was well liked and
active in civic and charitable work. She taught Sunday school at Central
Congregational, was an officer of the Christian Endeavor Society, and member of the
Women's Christian Temperance Union.”

BUT- I can’t find any evidence of George Washington signing such a pledge.  The
Washington Temperance Society named itself after him, but he couldn’t have been
involved, as it was founded after his death.

Marilyn Hamill-Stewart

Well, Carrie Amelia Nation was often called "Mother Nation".  George Washington was
called the "Father of our Nation".  Lizzie Borden used an axe on her parents, and Carrie
Nation used an axe on Demon Rum. (I like her!) Interestingly, Carrie Nation and Lizzie
Borden were operas that were performed in 1965 and 1966.  (I didn't find one for
George, though there probably is one.) Here's a cool periodical: and I dressed as Lizzie Borden one Halloween.

Editor's Notes

The opera Carry Nation by Douglas Moore premiered at the University of Kansas
Theatre. April 28, 1966. More information, including a synopsis, can be found at:

The opera Lizzie Borden by Jack Beeson premiered at the New York City Opera on
March 25, 1965. More information, including a synopsis, can be round at:
The Hatchet
Journal of Lizzie Borden Studies

The Hatchet is an online quarterly journal devoted to the
examination and investigation of the Borden Murders of
1892. Written for both the novice and seasoned Lizzie
Borden enthusiast, The Hatchet takes a literate and
entertaining approach through wide-ranging feature
essays, reviews and criticism, interviews, fiction, art,
poetry, and humor. Fact-filled, The Hatchet contains
contributions by Lizzie Borden scholars worldwide.
Submissions are open and all authors and artists will
receive monetary compensation for their work.
FACTOID - The Lizzie Borden/Marilyn Monroe Connection

Did you know that Lizzie Borden died on June 1, 1927 and Marilyn Monroe was born
on June 1, 1926? AND the murders of Andrew and Abby took place on August 4, 1892
and Marilyn died between August 4th and 5th, 1962? Strange but true! Wanna see
Lizzie morph into Marilyn Monroe? Click
Congratulations to our winners!

David Lepitre            Mary Fraser   
John Chulick            Mary E. South   
Bill Burrows               Dale Niesen             
Kelly Fetherlin             Bobbie Sims        
Judith Johnson Peterson      Marilyn Hamill-Stewart         
Grace Hertz         Edee Scott
Carol Ives                Dawn Carlile
Stan Read                Suzan Farris
Rick Mackinney                Maureen O'Connor
Eva Royal            Susan Fortune
Jackie Torrance                Judy Pfaff
Mike Pfister                Jon Fox
Pinky Palladino                Gretchen Kostanza
Peter St. Wecker

If your name was omitted from our list of winners, please let me know.  It was unintentional.
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Contest #53 Results