XXX
XXX
Available from Beacon.
Click
here.
XXX
XXX
References
1.  What was the name of the program?

The name of the program associated with the photo was Operation Babylift. [1]

2.  Between what two dates was this picture taken?

At first blush, one could say that the parameter dates within which this photo was
taken, were the dates of the operation
April 4 - 26, 1975 [2] but let's take a deeper look:

The Photograph

The photo is clearly a commercial aircraft (type and design of seats, 9 open windows
and one closed/blocked one, seat plan although additional seats seem to have been
added, etc…) Now, in the Oakland Tribune Collection, the Oakland Museum of
California, there are 3 relevant photos:

a)  Our photo [3] is dated April 12, 1975 in the collection. On the back of the photo is
handwritten the following. "Babies
XXX
XXX
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Quiz #417 Results
Bookmark and Share
Answers to Quiz #417 - October 27, 2013
**********
QUIZMASTER
ROGUES GALLERY
1. What was the name of the program?
2. Between what two dates was this picture taken?
3.  What was the nature of the related lawsuit?
UPCOMING EVENTS
**********
Answers:
1. Operation Babylift.
2. Between April 4, 1975 and April 26, 1975.
3.  Some of the children were not orphans.
The lawsuit was meant to stop their adoptions.
**********
Comments from Our Readers
I remember that well.  That was Operation Babylift.  A lot of those children were
brought to the Presidio of San Francisco.  I and a couple of my friends went to the
Presidio and volunteered.  We babysat infants and played games with the older kids.  I
remember one child in particular.  I think his name was something like Thann.   He
was unable to walk.  He didnt speak English and I didnt speak Vietnamese.  Somehow
we managed to make up a ball game of sorts that kept us amused.  The time frame
was April 3 through 26, 1975.  I had no recollection of the lawsuit so I had to look
that up.  It was a class action suit.  I found The Babylift lawsuit argued that many of
the children in the airlift were not orphans, had been given up under duress during
wartime, and that the U.S. government had an obligation to return them to their
families.  The class action suit was dismissed.  There were subsequent individual
lawsuits when only a very few (12) children were reunited with their families.  I hope
Thann was one of those 12 children.

One of life’s little coincidences:  I was talking with one of my friends this past week.  
She had just taken an out of town guest on a tour of the city which included a drive
through the Presidio.  Out of her mouth came, “Do you remember when we went
down there and took care of the babies?”  It had made an impression on both of us.
Carol Farrant
*****
I remember this (although I was only 9 years old) because a couple from my church
were going to adopt one of the children who died in the plane crash on April 4. I did
not realize that this was only the first flight and there were more.
Rebecca Bare
*****
These quizzes sure are fun!

At first I thought the plane must be a cargo plane. But then the seats really caught my
eye. Sure looks more like commercial seating. I'm not expert though. I did see a
photo with the babes in a cargo plane and it was completely different. It had a very
typical military look on the inside with the babies strapped to the flooring rather than
in seats. So I still wonder about that one.

I surely appreciate your responding though; I didn't know of the one baby that died
(other than the crash of the first flight). I am really learning a lot, gotta love that.
Can't wait to read your answer page and check out the links you provided.

Thanks Colleen.
Dianne Abbott
*****
I remember when this happened, I was attending Texas Tech University at the
time. (yes, that now dates me!)  I find it interesting that my Alma mater now
holds Vietnam archives that can provide additional information.
Nancy Nalle-Mackenzie
*****
They all look so quiet - have you ever seen a baby on a plane NOT screaming?
Tami Osmer Mize  
*****
Mary & I again found this week's quiz very interesting and touching. All those
precious children! I wonder how & where all of these children are now.
Grace Hertz and Mary Turner
Team Fletcher
*****
Operation Baby Lift! (Vietnamese babies that were rescued and "processed" at various
areas, including Camp Pendleton, California, where my husband, David W. Thorne,
RN, assisted in prepping them to be placed in homes where they would be safe!
Nannette Thorne
*****
This looked like an airplane to me. The babies look to have dark hair and complexions.
There are ashtrays in the plane arms so guessing it's an older picture. I figured with
so many children it had to be an adoption, rescue, airlift, etc. I searched photos online
using various terms until I came upon the website list [at
reagangirl.com/46959/].
Skip Murray
**********
Congratulations to Our Winners


Sharon Levy                Ida Sanchez Tello
Margaret Paxton                Marcelle Comeau
Donna Jolley                Skip Murray
John Thatcher                Dianne Abbott
Nelsen Spickard                Cathy Bence
Gus Marsh                Cynthia Costigan
Nannette Thorne                Carol Farrant
Brad Glover                Jim Kiser
Daniel Jolley                Tom Collins
Alma Darling                W. David Samuelson
Winnifred Evans                Mike Dalton
Nancy Nalle-Mackenzie                Carol Stansell
Cindy Tarsi

Grace Hertz and Mary Turner
Team Fletcher!

Robert E. and Donald R. McKenna
Quiz Poets Laureate
**********
Handwritten note by photographer, " Feet
to big for the bed. Aboard 747 Jumbo Jet
enroute to LAX. Five babies shown
sleeping in file boxes aboard an airplane. A
couple of them are bigger than the boxes,
and their feet are hanging out. The file
boxes are strapped into the airplane seats.
At the top of the photo, a woman is seated
and is holding one of the babies.

Robert Stinnett ~ photographer | Oakland
Tribune
photograph
12-Apr-75
GELATIN SILVER PRINT
8 in HIGH x 10 in WIDE
(20.32 cm HIGH x 25.40 cm WIDE)
The Oakland Tribune Collection, the
Oakland Museum of California. Gift of
ANG Newspapers
2000.1.1507
collections.museumca.org/?q=collection-item/200011507
Handwritten on the back of the photo,
"Babies strapped in seats in 747 Jumbo jet
enroute Clark AB to LAX." Photo shows
the interior of the plane with Vietnamese
children, who appear to be all under the
age of 1, sleeping in cardboard boxes. The
boxes are stapped into the seats. This was
part of the orphan airlift, called "Operation
Babylift" from Vietnam to the US that took
place in 1975, primarily by World Airways.

Robert Stinnett ~ photographer | Oakland
Tribune
photograph
04/12/75
GELATIN SILVER PRINT
8 in HIGH x 10 in WIDE
(20.32 cm HIGH x 25.40 cm WIDE)
The Oakland Tribune Collection, the
Oakland Museum of California Gift of
ANG Newspapers
H99.1.60
collections.museumca.org/?q=collection-item/h99160
Caption on Oakland Tribune article,
"Doctor on mercy flight to Los Angeles
checks infant as others in row sleep in file
boxes". Five babies (newborn) are shown
sleeping in file boxes on airplane seats.
Doctor is checking them.

Robert Stinnett ~ photographer | Oakland
Tribune
photograph
15-Apr-75
GELATIN SILVER PRINT
10 in HIGH x 8 in WIDE
(25.40 cm HIGH x 20.32 cm WIDE)
The Oakland Tribune Collection, the
Oakland Museum of California. Gift of
ANG Newspapers
2000.1.1503
collections.museumca.org/?q=collection-item/200011503
Prior to this photo, I had never heard of Operation Babylift. By
looking at it I assumed it was a plane carrying orphans from the war
to be adopted, but didn't know what war or what program. After a
few unfruitful searches, I realized the plane was quite big. It has at
least 4 seats and then another 3. Looking for that arrangement, there
are only 2 planes capable of such number of seats (which of course
would include another extra 3 on the other side of the hallway). One
of those planes was not in existence until recently, the other was the
Jumbo (boeing 747). Too late for it being in WWI, I googled boeing
747 vietnam adoption and that got me to the name of the program,
which answered questions 1 and 2. Googling it with the word
"lawsuit", brought the answer to question number 3.

However, looking at most articles, seemed like it was cargo planes
the main ones utilized, but there was at least one PanAm Jumbo on
April 5 that was chartered after the April 4 crash. Thinking I had
easily nailed it, I researched that flight, only to find very different
seats and a handful of amateur photographs taken by a flight
attendant.

After a day wasted researching options outside of the US with
Jumbos chartered in Australia and the UK, I was brought back to the
US and found a Facebook group about the Galaxy crash on April 4,
scrolled down and found this picture. In the comments, in which
people were just as lost as I was, a woman said that it was "written
on the back of the picture" that it was a Jumbo from the Clark base
to Los Angeles. That allowed me to locate the picture in the Oakland
Tribune and the flight in the Babylift report. Finally, I got an LA
Times article dated April 13 with a picture from outside the plane and
the same cardboard boxes, as well as several other pictures taken
during that same flight.

Ida Sanchez Tello
OPERATION BABYLIFT

There was US Government Operation in 1975
To protect Orphans  of  the Vietnam  War.
Rumors of harm at the hands of the
Invading Communist Army persisted.
The plans for transportation to the US,
And other countries such as Australia,  France ,
And Canada.  Over 2,000. South Vietnamese,
Infants were airlifted out of Vietnam .
If these  infants had stayed in Vietnam,
They  would not  have survived due to the
Due to the circumstances of  war and conflict.

Robert E. and Donald R. McKenna
Quiz Poets Laureate
Sharon M. Levy's Analysis of the Photo
(Spectacular Research!)
strapped in seats in 747 Jumbo jet en
route Clark AB to LAX" [4] that being:
enroute Clark Air Force Base to Los
Angeles International Airport / World
Airports (LAX).

b)  A second similar photo [5] in the
same collection is also dated April 12,
1975 in the collection.  Note the folded
blanket on the back of the seat in both
photos in the same position, not to speak
of the pattern on the upholstery of the
seats.  This photo also has an inscription
on the back:  "Feet to big for the bed.
Aboard 747 Jumbo Jet en route to LAX."

c)  A third similar photo [6], dated April
15 in the collection, has the following
inscription on the back:  "Doctor on
mercy flight to Los Angeles checks infant
as others in row sleep in file boxes."
Seemingly the same flight but ostensibly,
this could be a different flight also headed
for LA. The sleeping babies (not the same
rows as in our photo), the pattern of the
seats and the head "rests" and the carton
boxes, seem to indicate that it is the same
flight, although this alone, given the
difference in the date, isn't conclusive.

So, if the dates in the collection are
accurate then, based on the first two
photos and their inscriptions, the date of
our photo seems to be April 12, 1975, or
possibly earlier and only dated on the
12th. It is not conclusive [7] that the
photos were taken specifically on the
12th. Maybe they were taken on, say, the
10th or 11th and only listed or processed
on the 12th. And is the information
regarding the plane being a 747 Jumbo
accurate.  Let's take a look.

The Plane

a)
The vast majority of planes used to
airlift people out of Vietnam and
Cambodia were MAC (Military Air
Command) charted military cargo planes,
USAF C-5A, C-141, and C-130s.

b) There were 6 non-Operation Babylift
flights out of Saigon with their destination
being continental USA: 3 World Airways
unauthorized flights [8] (April 2, 22 and
26 all of which landed in Oakland [9],
California) and 3 Pan Am flights [10] that
were used during this period: 2 landed
[11] in San Francisco on the 5th and 6th
of April and one in Seattle, Washington
on the 6th.

c) Nine open windows and, it seems, one
that is closed or plugged, are visible.  
This matches information regarding the
747.

d) The seat plan (configuration) is the
following pattern: 2 seats-aisle-4seats-
aisle-2 seats.  Again this is a seating plan
of the 747. Additional seats have been
added in one of the aisles. This would
match
the seat plan for the 747 Jumbo,
just as stated on the photo. [12]

Our photo's inscription states that the
flight was en route to Los Angeles. None
match. So where's our plane?

Let's take a closer look at the inscription
on the back of our photo: "enroute Clark
AB to LAX". So this plane departed from
Clarks Air Force base in the Philippines
not from Saigon. It isn't one of the three
unauthorized flights.  So where did these
kids come from?

Looking back at the Operation Babylift
[13] Report we see that, in fact, a flight,
MAC 1965 –WA #748, with 330 kids and
30 escorts departed Clark AFB for Los
Angeles on April 12 at 11:11 a.m. and
arrived in L.A. at 8:43 a.m. [14]

Let's look again at the flight name and
number: MAC 1965 – WA #748.

"WA". Presumably [15] World Airways.

Now the
MAC (Military Airlift Command)
Monograph [16] details further: "Depart:
Clark, Destination: Los Angeles; Mission
Number: 1965-01; Number Type Aircraft:
WOA B•747; Date: 12 Apr; Orphans: 329"

"Mission number 1965" in the MAC
Monograph confirms the Report's "MAC
1965 ". and "WOA" is definitely [17]

World Airways
. "B•747" = Boeing 747.
*****
*****
What's the story with MAC – World Airways being hyphenated? "MAC 1965 –WA
#748" in the Report  and "MAC 1965 – WA #748" in the Monograph.

As it turns out,
World Airways [18] had a government contract working with MAC
[19] and operated
charter airline operations during the Vietnam era. [20]

So now we have corroborating evidence that the flight that left Clark was a World
Airways Boeing 747, destination Los Angeles - with 330 orphans, according to the
Report, and 329 orphans, according to the MAC monograph. We alos have
confirmation of the date: April 12.

So we've got our plane.  As the photo inscription said: "Babies strapped in seats in 747
Jumbo jet enroute Clark AB to LAX."

So how did 330, or is it 329, orphans get to Clark AFB?

Again the Report [21] shows  that two planes left Saigon on the 11th within minutes of
each other- with their destination being Clark AFB with a total of
253 [22] orphans
onboard. 52 orphans
arrive at Clarks AFB [23] on the 9th to Clark AFB . Another plane
[24] that departed Saigon on the 10th carried 22 kids to Clark AFB.

The total of 330 orphans [25] that departed Clarks AFB for LAX is reached by adding
these 52 and 22 orphans to our 253.  this brings us to 327 kids.  Off by 3 [6]
1. www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/document/0122/1252273.
pdf  "April 3, 1975 - Opening Statement at Press Conference at San
Diego, California” of the President's Speeches and Statements:
Reading Copies at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library; see also:
"Operation Babylift Report: Emergency Movement of Vietnamese and
Cambodian Orphans for Intercountry Adoption, April - June 1975.
Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., page 1:
http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pdaaq604.pdf .  This source is herein
referred to as the
Report. See also Operation New Life. There were
unofficial flights prior to April 3rd but that is another story.

2.  "The final flight of Operation Babylift, a MAC c-141 Medevac
aircraft, with 42 children, who had been hospitalized at Pacific
locations enroute to the U.S., arrived at McCord Air Force Base in
Washington State on May 7." Source: Operation Baby Lift Report:
Emergency Movement of Vietnamese and Cambodian Orphans for
Intercountry Adoption, April - June 1975. Agency for International
Development, Washington, D.C., page 1 "Summary"; page 22, see:
pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pdaaq604.pdf. This source is herein referred
to as the Report.

3.  
collections.museumca.org/?q=collection-item/h99160
4.  collections.museumca.org/?q=collection-item/h99160
5.  collections.museumca.org/?q=collection-item/200011507
6.  collections.museumca.org/?q=collection-item/200011503

7.  In communication on Thursday, October 31, the Nathan Kerr, the
coordinator of Intellectual Property at the Collections and Information
Access Center at the Oakland Museum in California communicated
the following: "Likely the dates that are associated with the photos on
the website are the dates that they were published, very often the
photos from the Tribune collection are marked with the dates they
were published as opposed to the dates they were created. All of the
information in our database is there on the website, so it's hard to say
more without taking a look at the photos themselves, which are at an
offsite storage facility."

8.  The Report, 25: "It should be noted that three unauthorized flights
by World Airways, Inc., which transported orphans and other
children, were not a part of Operation Babylift… The first flight on
April 2 carried 45 FCVN orphans; the second on April 22 with
approximately 104 children sponsored by Father Crawford; and the
third on April 26 with 210 Montagnard children…. Also, this report
does not cover those orphans who may have departed under the
normal procedures on scheduled commercial flights."

9.  Ibid, 16, 20.

10. Ibid, pages 3, 16.

11. Ibid, 16.

12.
www.boeing.com/boeing/commercial/747family/background.
page? Our plane was probably in the family of 747-200.

13. Ibid, 19.

14. Departure time is after arrival time on the same day. Makes sense
as flying east across the International Date Line results in time being
subtracted.

15. The IATA, International Air Transport Association, two-letter
airline designator codes are non-unique per airline. [from Wikipedia –
find source]

16. MAC and Operation Babylift Monograph: Air Transport in
Support of Noncombatant Evacuation Operations, Military Airlift
Command, Office of History, Monograph. Coy F. Cross II, Military
Airlift Command, Scott Air Force Base, Illinois, November 1989,
page 58:  
www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-120831-
032.pdf

17. The ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization, three-letter
designator codes are unique by airline. "WOA" is World Airways
designator code.  See:
www.emfa.
pt/infoaero/conteudos/galeria/ICAO/Docs_Pagos/8585.pdf, Doc
8585/164, Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies, Aeronautical
Authorities and Services, page 1-107, International Civil Aviation
Organization, April 2013.

18. Air Mobility Command Fact Sheet: Civil Reserve Air Fleet: "A
unique and significant part of the nation's air mobility resources is the
Civil Reserve Air Fleet or CRAF. Selected aircraft from U.S. airlines,
contractually committed to CRAF, augment Department of Defense
airlift requirements in emergencies when the need for airlift exceeds
the capability of military aircraft."  World Airways is presently listed
as being part of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet.
www.amc.af.
mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=234

19. Air Mobility Command document. See Chapter 6 Evolution and
Expansion, 1973-1981, page 153.: "Between 6 April and 6 May 1975,
MAC and contract carriers airlifted 1,794 Southeast Asian orphans to
their new American families in the United States. The C-141s
transported 949 orphans in 24 missions, while commercial carriers
airlifted another 845 orphans in four missions. The aircraft
transporting the orphans landed in San Francisco, Oakland, Los
Angeles, Long Beach, Los Alamitos Naval Air Station, El Toro Marine
Corps Air Station in California, and at McChord Air Force Base,
Washington."
www.amc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-131018-
048.pdf

20. Ibid, page 222, chapter 6, note 7. "For example, between April
1973 and April 1975, the United States conducted an airlift resupply
operation into Cambodia. … During the later stages of the airlift, five
commercial carriers - Airlift International, Flying Tigers, Seaboard
World, Trans International, and World Airways - augmented the
airlift, … See: History of the Military Airlift Command, 1 July 1974-
31 December 1975. pp 192. 197. 198."

21. Idid., page 19: MAC C-141 Y5A7MX Departed Saigon on April
11, 1975 at 15:15 with 120 orphans; MAC  C_141 3613-10 departed
Saigon at 15:30 with 133 orphans.

22. Ibid., page 27.  The same report lists how many kids each agency
was responsible for. On Friday, April 11th, the An Loc Orphanage
and the FCVN (Friends of Children of Vietnam) accounted for 212
and 38 kids, respectively, for a total of 250. Off by 3 from what is
listed in the airline boarding section on page 19.

23. Ibid, page 19. In the "Remarks" section associated with our flight
from Clark AFB to LAX we find the following note: Includes 22
orphans destined for Norway, 52 Khmer to U.S.

24. Ibid.

25. For how many of these were in cardboard box/bassinets, see
news article #2 from the Los Angeles Times, below.

26.  See note 22, above.

27.  Ibid, page 60.

28.  Another source says that she was 3 months old. See the
following newspaper article.

29.  The Long Beach operation began with the arrival of the first
flight at the Los Angeles International Airport on April 12 with 328
orphans aboard, including 196 from An Lac Orphanage in Saigon,
sponsored by Mrs. Betty Tisdale in cooperation with the PBF. There
was some initial confusion due to the pressure of dignitaries, the
press and the curious as well as with the insistence of Mrs. Tisdale
that her orphans move immediately onward to Fort Benning, Georgia.

30.  
www.newspapers.com/newspage/602280/

31.  See note 33 below; see: oaklandwiki.org/Fred_Garretson

32.  Framework is the official photography and video blog of the Los
Angeles Times. This blog, quoting the LA Times was posted on
October 15, 2013 by Scott Harrison who runs the blog
framework.
latimes.com/2013/10/15/330-orphans-arrive-in-los-angeles/

33.  www.independent.org/aboutus/person_detail.asp?id=514

34.  In an email from me to Robert Stinnett on Thursday, October
31, I wrote: The Oakland Tribune site has you listed as the
photographer for 3 photos of infants taken on April 12, 1975 aboard a
747 enroute from Clark AFB to Los Angeles. I was wondering if you
could confirm that you are indeed the photographer and that they
were taken on Saturday the 12th.

35.  See The Des Moines Register news article, page 4, note 30,
above.

36.  Information merged from not primary sources:
 
www.vietnambabylift.org/Timeline.html;
 
adoption.about.com/od/international/f/babylift.htm;
 
www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/daughter/peopleevents/e_babylift.html

37.  See Report, Pages 9 – 11.

38.  For more on the lives of Adoptees from Vietnam and Cambodia
see
www.adoptedvietnamese.org/ and www.adoptvietnam.org/

39.  Report, pages 7 and 8.

40.  See note 25 above.

41.  See note 23 above. See Los Angeles Times news article #2 above.
including one infant who died en route from Clark Air
Base in the Philippines, arrived at Los Angeles
International Airport Saturday morning.

Thirty-nine children aboard the plane were taken to
local hospitals with a variety of ailments, including
dehydration, pneumonia, measles and one case of
chicken pox.

Their conditions ranged from fair to serious …

The orphans, accompanied on the plane by 154 adults,
included eight doctors and 20 nurses, had been flown
to Clark by about a dozen military transport flights
during the last week from Saigon and Phnom Penh,
according to World Airways pilot Ken Healy.
framework.latimes.com/2013...
An Air Force spokesman said the Cambodian children, reportedly numbered about 50,
were the first orphans flown out of that country.

The red-and-white 747 was met by a team of doctors and nurses from the county’s
Medical Alert Center, which coordinated the local agencies meeting the nonstop mercy
flight.

Eight Navy doctors assisted in determining which children needed immediate
hospitalization.

Mayor Tom Bradley and his wife Ethel, and Supervisor James Hayes, whose district
includes the airport, greeted the first children off the plane.

The sick orphans, most of them infants, were brought down the stairway in some of
the 160 white cardboard boxes which served as bassinets aboard the plane…

Photographer:

I was perplexed by the tilde symbol (~) on the Oakland Tribune collection preceding the
word photographer: " Robert Stinnett ~ photographer", wondering if it possibly
indicated doubt as to who took the photograph.  In an email on Thursday, October 31,
with Nathan Kerr, the coordinator of Intellectual Property at the Collections and
Information Access Center at the Oakland Museum in California communicated the
following:

the "~" is a symbol used in our database to separate terms that modify one another, in
this case it is used to separate "Robert Stinnet" from "photographer" in the "made"
field. This is done to indicate that the photo was made by Robert Stinnet in the capacity
of the photographer. This perhaps makes more sense when there are multiple creators
with different roles like in the case of a poster or print where there is a designer/artist
and a printer, so you can indicate that one person designed the poster while another
printed it but they both contributed to it's production.

Robert Stinnet [33], the photographer of our photo, was on a journalist and
photographer on staff with the Oakland Tribune from 1950 – 1986. On Friday,
November 1, he confirmed to me [34], that he indeed was the photographer:

Yes. You have found the correct guy.  I was assigned to cover the Vietnam baby lift in
April 1975 along with reporter Skip Garretson [35] . We flew from Oakland to Clark
Air Force Base in the Philippines aboard a World Airways 747 jet. Our return jet flight
landed first in Los Angeles where the passengers were taken by ambulance and other
transportation. The Oakland Tribune published a series of babylift stories in the week
of April 12, 1975 and are available in the Newspaper History Room of the Oakland
Public Library.  

Best regards,
Robert Stinnett

So to answer question #2: The photo was taken on Saturday, April 12th, 1975
somewhere over the Pacific Ocean, en route from the Clarks Air Force Base in the
Philippines, sometime after departure at 11:11 a.m. because the kids are all asleep but
prior to arrival, at LAX at 8:43 a.m.

3. What was the nature of the related lawsuit?

Well it would depend on which question this is referring to.

[What I write next is merged from a number of non-primary sources].

If it is to question #1 "What was the name of the operation?", then the most likely
Click on thumbnail to read report.

Is there significance to the difference in the
head-count of the orphans, 330 or 329?

The report [27] list the death of "<…>rhi Thuy
Binh, female, 3 weeks [28] (died on) April 12,
"Tressler/An Loc" (responsible agency [29]),
(while) enroute to Long Beach, California." Long
Beach is a city situated within Greater Los
Angeles Area in Southern California.  So the
variant in the numbers 330 to 329 is most
significant.  A baby girl died while en route from
Clark AFB to Los Angeles.

Now let's see two news article from April 14th
regarding our flight.
News article #1

The Des Moines Register [30], April 14th, 1975, Page 6 (OCR text)
"Headline: Medical personnel clash as ailing orphans arrive"

LOS ANGELES, CALIF. (AP) — Doctors aboard a babylift flight and Los Angeles
County medical officials who met the jammed plane angrily blamed each other Sunday
for airport confusion that delayed treatment of 32 ailing war orphans. The infants, from
"hastily evacuated orphanages in the Indochina war zone, were suffering from
malnutrition, dehydration, pneumonia, tuberculosis, lice and various other war-spawned
afflictions. A 3-month-old girl died before the World Airways 747 with 329 orphans
and 150 adults aboard arrived here Saturday morning.  On board were 12 doctors,
including several emergency treatment specialists, 13 nurses and 25 specially trained
flight attendants.  Local volunteers waiting anxiously at Los Angeles International
Airport were several hundred local volunteers led by a team of doctors and nurses from
the Los Medical Alert Angeles County Center.  But when the craft touched down after
its 7,000-mile flight from Saigon, those at the scene said confusion reigned.  The only
reporter aboard,
Skip Garretson [31] of the Oakland Tribune, said Los Angeles Mayor
Tom Bradley, county officials and a number of police officers blocked doctors and
nurses from immediately carrying the most seriously ill infants off the plane.  It was not
on the airport runway and covered red with blankets. He noted that just a few yards
away, a fleet of empty ambulances sat waiting.  Another newsman at the scene said it
took at least 20 minutes for the first child to get into an ambulance.  Eventually the
orphans were taken to nine hospitals. Three were in serious condition Sunday with
malnutrition, skin disease, diarrhea, and possible tuberculosis.  The rest were reported
progressing well. 'Had It Organized" Dr. Bert Sabo, organizer of the mission said "We
had it all organized but they weren't interested in our organization."  But Dr. Richard
Scott, director of the county's Medical Alert Center, placed the blame or the airport
confusion and delay on personnel aboard the plane. 'Nobody was trying to screw up the
system, but even if they <> I don't know how they could," Scott said.  Scott said the
confusion was impounded by "a lot of political and social greetings." Many of those
aboard "were so jealous and distraught they <>ould hardly let us look at the kids," he
said….

News article #2

Los Angeles Times [Framework [32]], April 13, 1975
Reported by Kathy Burke and Kay Cooperman

"A World Airways jumbo jet carrying 330 Vietnamese and Cambodian orphans,
answer is that there seem to have been a
number of
lawsuits [36] (against Ed Daly ,
President of World Airways, against the
plane manufacturer [Lockheed], against
President Ford, Secretary of State
Kissinger) as a result of Operation Babylift.

There was a class action lawsuit filed on
April 29, 1975, in the Federal District
Court in San Francisco, California on
behalf of Vietnamese children brought to
the United States for adoption.

The class action suit was brought by Muoi
McConnell, a former Vietnamese nurse.
The suit was supported by an ad hoc
group called The Committee to Protect the
Rights of Vietnamese Children. Spokesmen
for the Committee are Thomas R. Miller, a
Bay area lawyer, and his wife, Tran Tuong
Nhu, a Vietnamese American journalist,
who is the head of an organization known
as the
International Children's Fund". [37]

The suit was filed against President Ford,
Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, and
others, regarding improper procedures.  
The Oregonian
Portland, OR
Monday, April 7, 1975
submitted by Mike Dalton
The children had been allowed to legally enter the U.S. via a parolee visa signed by
President Ford, in which their adoptive parents had 90 days in which to complete the
paperwork for their individual visas.

The class action suit alleged that several of the Vietnamese orphans brought to the
United States under Operation Babylift had stated that they were not orphans and that
they wished to return to Vietnam. The suit wanted to halt adoption proceedings until it
would be determined whether the parents or appropriate relatives in Vietnam have
consented to their adoption or that these parents or relatives could not be found. The
hope was to reunite these children with their living families.

Judge Spencer Williams, after many months of depositions, interviews and footprinting
of the adoptees by the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service, dismissed
the case, stating that is was not a class action suit but rather 2,000 separate cases.

As reported on the pbs.org site sited above, Miller stated that the Judge "sealed the
records, and told us we could not contact any of the Vietnamese families and let them
know where their children were."

"Only in cases where parents had found their children independently could Miller's
group represent them. Eventually only twelve children were reunited with their
Vietnamese parents, but only after many years and lawsuits. Many children were
caught in court battles between their birth parents and their adoptive parents. For a
number of Babylift adoptees, finding their birth parents is essentially impossible,
because no records exist. In recent years, many have established connections with each
other based on their shared experiences." [38]

Now if the question regarding which lawsuit was brought more in relationship to this
picture, then the answer might well be of the lawsuit [39] that was brought by Dr.
Richard Scott.  Remember him.  As reported by the Des Moines Register [40], he was
a doctor on board the flight from Clark AFB to Los Angeles. Recall that it was on this
flight that there were Cambodian [41] orphans.
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www.vietnambabylift.org/Timeline.html
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