Facts About Edward VI:
* Edward wrote a book called, A Tract Against the Pope at age 12.
* When King Edward VI did badly on his lessons, his whipping boy, Barnaby
Fitzpatrick, was smacked.
* King Edward VI disliked Windsor Castle.
* His last words were: "Oh my Lord God, defend this realm from papisty and
removed". After the service, Edward presided at a banquet in Westminster Hall, where,
he recalled in his Chronicle, he dined with his crown on his head.
During Edward's reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council, because he
never reached maturity. The Council was led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke
of Somerset, (1547–1549), and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, (1550–
1553), who later became Duke of Northumberland.
Edward's reign was marked by economic problems and social unrest that, in 1549,
erupted into riot and rebellion. A war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with
military withdrawal from there and Boulogne-sur-Mer. The transformation of the
Anglican Church into a recognisably Protestant body also occurred under Edward, who
took great interest in religious matters. Although Henry VIII had severed the link
between the Church of England and Rome, he never permitted the renunciation of
Catholic doctrine or ceremony. It was during Edward's reign that Protestantism was
established for the first time in England with reforms that included the abolition of
clerical celibacy and the Mass and the imposition of compulsory services in English.
and often visited him - on one occasion, Elizabeth gave him a shirt "of her own
working". Edward "took special content" in Mary's company, though he disapproved of
her taste for foreign dances; "I love you most", he wrote to her in 1546.
Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, when Edward was only nine. Those close to the
throne, led by Edward Seymour and William Paget, agreed to delay the announcement
of the king's death until arrangements had been made for a smooth succession.
Seymour and Sir Anthony Browne, the Master of the Horse, rode to collect Edward
from Hertford and brought him to Enfield, where Princess Elizabeth was living. He and
Elizabeth were then told of the death of their father and heard a reading of the will. The
Lord Chancellor, Thomas Wriothesley, announced Henry's death to parliament on 31
January, and general proclamations of Edward's succession were ordered. The new
king was taken to the Tower of London, where he was welcomed with "great shot of
ordnance in all places there about, as well out of the Tower as out of the ships". The
following day, the nobles of the realm made their obeisance to Edward at the Tower,
and Seymour was announced as Protector. Henry VIII was buried at Windsor on 16
February, in the same tomb as Jane Seymour, as he had wished.
Edward VI was crowned at Westminster Abbey four days later on Sunday 20
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Born 1485, in Thurcaston, Leicestershire, Hugh
Latimer greatly advanced the cause of the
Reformation in England through his vigorous
preaching and through the inspiration of martyrdom.
Latimer was the son of a prosperous yeoman farmer..
Educated at Cambridge University, he was ordained a
priest around 1510. In the two decades before 1530
he gradually acquired a reputation as a preacher at
Cambridge. At first he subscribed to orthodox Roman
Catholicism, but in 1525 he came into contact with a
group of young Cambridge divines who were
influenced by Martin Luther's Biblical, Reformed
doctrines. He attributed his conversion by God's grace
to the ministrations of Thomas Bilney.
After gaining royal favour by speaking out in support
|If you enjoy our quizzes, don't forget to order our books!
|Edward VI and the Pope: An Allegory of
the Reformation. This Elizabethan work
of propaganda depicts the handing over
of power from Henry VIII, who lies
dying in bed, to Edward VI, seated
beneath a cloth of state with a slumping
pope at his feet. In the top right of the
picture is an image of men pulling down
and smashing idols. At Edward's side
are his uncle the Lord Protector Edward
Seymour, and members of the Privy
|Born: ABT 1535
Father: Barnaby FITZPATRICK
(1º B. Upper Ossory)
Mother: Margaret BUTLER
Married: Joan EUSTACE
1. Margaret FITZPATRICK (m. James Butler, 2° B.
The Irish Barnaby Fitzpatrick took an oath of allegiance to
King Henry VIII 8 of Oct 1537; and, as a reward for this
submission, he became Baron of Upper Ossory on 11 Jun
1541. He married Margaret Butler, daughter of Piers "Red
Piers" Butler, 8º Earl of Ormond, who was Lord Deputy to
Ireland at the time and his father's great enemy and
Lord Upper Ossory's residence was far from Dublin, and it
was, we are told, "for the relief of his horses on his repair to
Dublin from the country" that the possession of Harold's
Grange was desired by him. After the dissolution of St.
Mary's Abbey the lands then known as Harold's Grange, on
which there were a small castle and a watermill, were
granted by Henry VIII to him.
Their first son, Barnaby, and his cousin Tomás Dubh Butler,
10th Earl of Ormond joined group of ten or twelve noble
youths whom Henry VIII had selected to be educated with
his son Edward.While most of the other pupils changed in
the course of the years, the two cousins remained until the
school group was formally disbanded in autumn 1552, five
years after Edward had come to the throne. Then, on 15
Aug 1551, Barnaby was appointed Edward’s ‘proxy for
correction’, or 'whipping boy', and it says much for Edward’
s good behaviour that Barnaby became his closest friend. It
was said it was no easy to affirm wether Fitzpatrick smarted
more for the default of the King; or the King conceived more
grief for the smart of Fitzpatrick. In any event, Edward's
affection for his 'whipping boy' was well known at Court
and was probably the greatest guarantee of the King's good
Edward's priggishness displayed itself in letters to
Fitzpatrick. When Barnaby was in France, the King wrote to
"Shortly we will prove howe ye have profited in the french
tongue, for we will write to you in french. For women, as
far as ye may, avoid their company. Yet, if the French King
command you, you may sometimes dance. Else apply
yourself to riding, shooting or tennis, with such honest
games, not forgetting sometimes your learning, chiefly
reading of the Scripture..."
A disgrunted Barnaby replied:
"ye make me think the care ye take for me is more fatherly
After Edward's death, Queen Mary retained Tomás Dubh
Butler at court for a further year, allowing him to return to
Ireland in Oct 1554, along with Barnaby Fitzpatrick and
Gerald Fitzgerald, 11th Earl of Kildare.
At the end of his life, Lord Upper Ossory was accused of
being a Catholic by his cousin, Black Tom Butler, convicted,
and imprisoned in Dublin Castle.
After three months of imprisionment, the Queen give him a
pardon, carried by the hand of his friend, Lord Leicester.
Before half a year he died and lies in a tomb in the heart of
Sir Barnaby Fitzpatrick died without a son to carry the title,
which then passed to his brother Florence, third Baron of
In September 1553 he was arrested on charges of treason; taken to Oxford for trial, he
was burned there with the Reformer Nicholas Ridley on October 16, 1555. At the stake
Latimer immortalized himself by exhorting Ridley with the words: "...we shall this day
light such a candle, by God's grace, in England as I trust shall never be put out."
During the reign of Edward VI Latimer preached the Gospel in many places. Frequently
his voice was heard at St. Paul's Cross. In 1548 Latimer commenced a series of
sermons from the pulpit at St. Paul's raising his voice in protest at the injustice of the
wealthy toward the poor. Rich and poor, high and low came and heard him protest at
oppression of every kind.
"You landlords, you rent-raisers, you have for your possession too much...and thus is
caused such dearth, that poor men that live on their labour cannot with the sweat of
their faces have their living. I tell you my lords and masters, this is not for the King's
honour; it is to the King's honour that his subjects be led in true religion. It is to the
King's honour that the commonwealth be advanced, that the dearth be provided for, and
the commodities of this realm so employed as it may be to the setting of his subjects at
work, and keeping them from idleness...The enhancing and bearing goes all to your
private commodity and wealth. Ye had a single too much, and now ye have a double
too much; but let the preacher preach till his tongue be worn to a stump, nothing is
For the remainder of Henry's reign Latimer existed in the
shadows. Apparently he incurred suspicion of heresy at
intervals and spent some time in the Tower of London,
where he was incarcerated during the last few months
before the accession of the boy king Edward VI in
January 1547. The new reign, with its rapid advance of
Biblical Protestantism, gave Latimer the opportunity to
exercise his great talents. He refused to resume his
bishopric, because he wanted to be free to preach without
fear or favour. His sermons attracted large crowds and
were often patronized by the Court.
With other Commonwealthmen, he attacked enclosure as
a cause of depopulation and poverty. Because of his great
contribution, under God's blessing, in the spread and
establishment of the Reformation, Latimer was a marked
man when the catholic Mary Tudor ascended the throne.
which time he was Bishop of Chichester) before a mob
of 20,000 and the Archbishop of Canterbury, throwing
various examples of his own heretical writings into a
fire. Thomas Netter also preached against Lollardy
here. Jane Shore, mistress of King Edward IV was
brought before the cross in 1483 and divested "of all
Bishop Thomas Kempe rebuilt the cross in the late 15th
century in grand architectural form, as an open air
pulpit of mostly timber with room for 3 or 4 inside it,
set on stone steps with a lead-covered roof and a low
surrounding wall. From here was preached much of the
English Reformation, along with many major events in
London's history, with sermons preached here usually
printed and thus redistributed to a wider audience.
It was a speech here that triggered the 1517 Evil May
Day anti-foreigner riots. Ultra-Lutheran Robert Barnes
|Answer to Quiz #265
July 25, 2010
St Paul's Cross (alternative spellings - "Powles
Crosse") was a preaching cross and open air pulpit in
the grounds of Old St Paul's Cathedral, City of
The first 'folkmoot' (or general assembly of the
people) known to be held here was by John Mansell,
a king's justice, on St Paul's Day in 1236, to
announce to them that Henry III wished London to be
well-governed and its liberties guarded. The
Archbishop of Canterbury and the King attended the
next such meeting we know of, in 1259, at which
Londoners came to swear their allegiance to the latter
and to his heirs (though under duress, as a royal army
was holding the city gates at this time). They also
gathered here later to swear allegiance to Henry's
opponent Simon de Montfort.
|Latimer was burned at the stake
October 16, 1555
|"Bradford Appeasing the
Riot at St. Paul's Cross",
from an 1887 edition of
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
|1. Who is the guy in the chair seated above everyone else?
2. Who is preaching to him?
3. Where did this scene occur and when?
|A sermon preached from St
Paul's Cross in 1614
|Edward VI, by William Scrots
N.B. On paper only. Edward was a Tudor. You are a Windsor. You are no blood
relation. In fact, you are not even a Windsor. You are a Saxe-Coburg-Gotha but
your dad changed the name during WWI because it was not P/C to have a German
Your children are Mountbatten-Windsors. That's contrived, too. Q. Gen.
My dear, when will you learn that names don't matter? Here is my ancestry to grandpa
Sophia of Hanover
Elizabeth of Bohemia
The picture's file name was no help at first because I was misreading it. What seemed
a string of unrelated code latedvi, I now see was Latimer-Edward VI. Even knowing
that the picture was of Edward VI didn't provide a clue. It just hit me walking out of
the grocery. Duh Diane Burkett
This was extremely difficult. I almost gave up except right before going to bed
Saturday night, I googled one more time. I was pretty sure it was during the 16th
century from the style of uniform so I looked up that century. I'm not sure what site it
was but I noticed a picture of a young man wearing the same outfit. Eureka! It was
Edward VI. Once I had that I googled "preaching to Edward VI" and the rest is history.
:) Debbie Ciccarelli
This link gives the day of the Sermon of the Plough as January 18, 1848.
The difference in dates might possibly be explained depending on whether the source
convered the date from the Old Style to the New Style calendar.
Ah, Latimer! "Play the man, Master Ridley." I've been to the memorial near where they
burned them. I'd never have guessed Paul's Cross - that wall looked more to me like an
interior one. Peggy Dolan
the recent discussion about Barnaby helped us recognize Edward.... but it's not like the
picture is all over the internet :o) At first I was thinking it was Thomas Cranmer doing
the preaching... eventually found the picture and got the right info. Incidently.. to be
more specific on the date: January 1, 1548. Thank you for posting this. Like I said, it
gave Pam and me a little project to work on together :o) John Fitzpatrick
February, the first coronation in England for almost
40 years. The ceremonies were shortened, because
of the "tedious length of the same which should
weary and be hurtsome peradventure to the King's
majesty, being yet of tender age", and also because
the Reformation had rendered some of them
inappropriate. On the eve of the coronation, Edward
progressed on horseback from the Tower to the
Palace of Westminster through thronging crowds
and pageants, many based on the pageants for a
previous boy king, Henry VI. He laughed at a
Spanish tightrope walker who "tumbled and played
many pretty toys" outside St Paul's Cathedral. At
the coronation service, Cranmer affirmed the royal
supremacy and called Edward a second Josiah,
urging him to continue the reformation of the
Church of England, "the tyranny of the Bishops of
Rome banished from your subjects, and images
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became
King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and
was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 20 February at
the age of nine. The son of Henry VIII and Jane
Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor
dynasty and England's first ruler who was raised as a
Protestant. He ruled from January 28, 1547-July 6,
1553. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on
February 20, 1547 at 9 years, 3 months of age. His title,
before he became king, was Duke of Cornwall.
Prince Edward was born on 12 October 1537 at his
mother's room inside of Hampton Court Palace, in
Middlesex. He was the son of King Henry VIII by his
third wife, Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the
people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we
hungered for so long", with joy and relief. Te Deums
were sung in churches, bonfires lit, and "their was shott
at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes".
Jane, appearing to recover quickly from the birth, sent
out pre-signed letters announcing the birth of "a Prince,
conceived in most lawful matrimony between my Lord
the King's Majesty and us". Edward was christened on
15 October, with Princess Mary as godmother and
Princess Elizabeth carrying the chrism, or baptismal
cloth; and the Garter King of Arms proclaimed him as
Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester. Jane Seymour,
however, fell ill on 23 October from presumed postnatal
complications, and died the following night. Henry VIII
wrote to Francis I of France that "Divine Providence ...
hath mingled my joy with bitterness of the death of her
who brought me this happiness".
Both Edward's sisters were attentive to their brother
of the efforts of King Henry VIII to obtain an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of
Aragon, Latimer received the benefice of West Kingston, Wiltshire, in1531. He soon
befriended two rising Reformers: Thomas Cromwell, who was to become the King's
chief minister, and the future Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer.
Accusations of heretical preachings were made against him and he refused in January
1532 to subscribe to certain articles of faith such as the existence of purgatory and the
need to venerate saints. Consequently, he was excommunicated and imprisoned until he
made a complete submission (April 1532).
Nevertheless, thanks to Cromwell's influence, Latimer was elevated in 1535 to the
bishopric of Worcester. By 1536 he was generally regarded as one of the Reform
leaders, even though there is no sign that he played any part in the various attempts of
those years to introduce changes in church doctrine. As a result of a temporary return
in England to a favouring of Roman Catholicism, Latimer was forced to resign his See
in 1539, and upon the sudden fall of Thomas Cromwell in July 1540, he lost his main
support at Court.
|Paul's Cross, outside St. Paul's Cathedral. Information on
when seems to be incomplete and contradictory. The most
likely candidate seems to be March 8, 1549. One source
says that Latimer preached to the king on January 1, 1548,
but another lists seven consecutive Sundays beginning with
March 8, 1549, the eighth and last being sometime in Lent,
1550. I didn't keep scrupulous enough notes, but I believe
that one source gives Paul's Cross as the site of the March
8, 1549 sermon, the next (as well as the last one) at the
palace at Westminster, but no location for the intervening
sermons. Any of them could have been Paul's Cross, could
have been Westminster.
This was a long and merry chase. I wound up finding the
image in only two locations, neither of which tells me who
painted the picture nor when, nor anything about the date of
the event. I tried to make it a young Henry VIII to start with,
|good, and Edward VI seemed a good fit. Edward VI
combined with preaching eventually gave me Hugh Latimer,
and finally Paul's Cross.
This was another one that I thought was hopeless to start
with, but the more I poked it, the more it bled. I was going
to continue work on the poster tonight after jazz orchestra
rehearsal, but I got sidetracked! A good one thanks.
Of course, the "latedvi.jpg" finally made sense.
|How Peter Solved the Puzzle
|based on the clothing, which went
nowhere; Henry VII just looked all
wrong. I tried to make an Irish
connection, based on the Fitzpatrick
Clan notation, but that was not direct
enough to help. I finally decided that I
could make out E and definitely R on the
cresty-looking thing at the top of the
black and red barber pole in front of the
ladies, so Edward Rex looked pretty
"Bradford Appeasing the Riot at St. Paul's Cross", from an 1887 edition of Foxe's Book
of Martyrs illustrated by Kronheim. According to Foxe, a Catholic speaker, Mr. Bourne,
had nearly driven his Protestant listeners to riot, but Bradford came to his rescue and
calmed the mob. A Richard Walker from Worcester, a chaplain, pleaded guilty to
sorcery charges here in c.1422 but, after forswearing such practices and being
arraigned by the Bishop of Llandaff (then John de la Zouche), he was marched to
Cheapside with his 2 magic books open upon him, where the books were burnt and he
freed without any other punishment. Reginald Pecock, Bishop of St. Asaph, attacked
Lollardy from this cross in 1437 but himself did public penance there in 1447 (by
national religion of England was not to take. However, when it
finally came to Dr Samson's appearance at the Cross to
announce Elizabeth's religious policy, the keys to the Cross's
pulpit were found to be mislaid and, when the Lord Mayor
ordered the door to be forced, it was found to be too dirty and
badly maintained for use on this occasion. However, John Jewel
was appointed the Cross's select preacher on 15 June 1559, and
on 26 November that year challenged all comers to prove the
Roman case out of the Scriptures, or the councils or Fathers for
the first six hundred years after Christ.
The Puritans destroyed the cross and pulpit in 1643 during the
First English Civil War. From that time, the site was unmarked
and only recorded in tradition. The cross (but not the pulpit)
was reconstructed in 1910 out of funds from the will of Mr.
H.C. Richards, KC, MP.
|Comments from Our Readers
|I believe it is my 10th great
grandfather, James. I do not know
who the Kirk of Scotland preacher
is. I am not amused.
amended. This one thing I tell you, from
whom it cometh, I know, even from the
Preaching his famous sermon on "The
Plough" he said to a number of bishops
standing before him, "Who is the most
diligent prelate in all England, that passeth
all the rest in the doing of his office? I will
tell you. It is the Devil!...Therefore, you
unpreaching prelates, learn of the devil to
be diligent in your office. If you will not
learn of God, for shame learn of the
1. Edward VI, son of Henry VIII
2. Hugh Latimer
3. Jan. 29, 1548 at St. Paul's Cross, London
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attacked Stephen Gardiner from it, and in 1566 Matthew Hutton, later Archbishop of
York, preached here. The first sermon preached here after Catholic Queen Mary's
accession (by Bishop Bourne) provoked a riot - a dagger was thrown at Bourne (but
missed him, sticking in one of the side posts) and he had to be rushed to safety in St
Mary's successor Queen Elizabeth I would risk no repetition of such a scene and kept
the pulpit enpty for months whilst the nation waited expectant to learn what form the
|Many thanks to Ronan Fitzpatrick, Fitzpatrick Clan Historian
The architect of these reforms was
Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of
Canterbury, whose Book of Common
Prayer has proved lasting.
Edward's last year was a painful one.
He, like his half-sister, Mary, had
congenital syphilis from his father,
Henry VIII, and his condition was
complicated by consumption. Edward
fell ill in January 1553, and when it was
discovered to be terminal, he and his
Council drew up a "Devise for the
Succession", attempting to prevent the
country being returned to Catholicism.
Edward named his cousin Lady Jane
Grey as his heir and excluded his half
sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. However,
this was disputed following Edward's
death and Jane was only queen for nine
days before Edward's half-sister, Mary,
was proclaimed Queen. She proceeded
to reverse many of Edward's Protestant
reforms, but Elizabeth's religious
|Edward VI in 1539 (top)
and as a teen (1546).
maintain their true religion."
* Edward's tutor said: "Every day (he)
readeth a portion of Solomon's Proverbs,
wherein he delighteth much; and learneth
there...to beware of strange and wanton