sculptor William Couper as the crowning feature of the monument that was unveiled on
May 16, 1907.
Originally a focal point in the downtown area, the monument was a symbol in bronze
and stone of the Lost Cause. But eventually the tides of progress abandoned it, and in
1924 a proposal was made to move it to another location.
This caused a resounding chorus of rebel yells, notable among them the hue and cry
raised by the late Mrs. Frank Anthony Walke, popularly known as "Mrs. Confederacy."
With fire in her eyes, Mrs. Walke defied the city fathers so effectively that they
dropped the matter like a hot potato, or rather a hot minie ball. In June of 1954, the
matter was again broached, at which time Norfolk Mayor W. Fred Duckworth aroused
Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA. The city is bordered to the west by the
Elizabeth River and to the north by the Chesapeake Bay. It also shares land borders with
the independent cities of Chesapeake to its south and Virginia Beach to its east. One of
the oldest of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads, Norfolk is considered to be the
historic, urban, financial, and cultural center of the region.
The city has a long history as a strategic military and transportation point. Norfolk
Naval Base is the world's largest such base, and the world's largest military alliance, the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization has its defense headquarters here. The city also has
the corporate headquarters of Norfolk Southern Railway, one of North America's
principal Class I railroads, and Maersk Line, Limited, who manages the world's largest
fleet of US-flag vessels. As the city is bordered by multiple bodies of water, Norfolk
has many miles of riverfront and bayfront property. It is linked to its neighbors by an
extensive network of Interstate highways, bridges, tunnels, and bridge-tunnel
Norfolk developed a century after initial settlement of Virginia. Its excellent harbor on
the Elizabeth River offered shelter from storms and pirates, but the region was exposed
to attack by Spanish, Dutch, and French warships. The local sandy soils produced poor
tobacco, but the region did provide lumber, meat (especially pork), and produce needed
by the Sugar Islands in the Caribbean as well as the coastal cities in north America.
Norfolk also grew as the export/import center for northeastern North Carolina, since
that region lacked a good port on the Atlantic Ocean. Norfolk was destroyed by the
American rebels at the very start of 1776, in part to prevent Lord Dunmore and the
|City Directories can be great resources of information about Norfolk
and the rest of the Southside cities. The older city directories list
people living in Norfolk and Portsmouth as well as local businesses.
In most cases, the entries in these books give home, work, and
spousal information. The business and organizational entries
frequently list their location and leadership. The directories are
generally divided into four sections: business advertisements,
alphabetical listing of people and businesses, a reverse street
directory, and a government or type of business directory. These
books are a great source with which to research your family,
business, or even a building's history. The city directories were
usually published annually and contain the previous year's
information. Example: A 1900 City Directory will contain 1899 listing
information for the city. However, there are instances of multi-year
directories or, in rare cases, no directories published for a certain
Please check under the "Finding Aids" section of our website for
guides on how to use a city directory and a listing of the local city
directories we have available for the cities of Southside Hampton
Roads [Chesapeake, Norfolk (including South Norfolk & Berkley),
Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach.].
The directories listed below are in Adobe's Portable Document
Format. A free reader is available from Adobe at
http://get.adobe.com/reader/. The file size of each directory is listed
and large files may take several minutes to load, even with a fast
We wish to thank Joan Dalis for her most generous donation that
made this project possible. We also want to thank our friends from
the Chesapeake, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach Public Library -
Local History collections for all their work as we formed a
collaboration to preserve our histories through digital format. We look
forward to future phases of our digital collaboration.
These directories are solely for research purposes. Commercial
reprints are prohibited.
|How Don Solved the Puzzle
|All the signs helped to easily identify the locale as Norfolk Virginia. I
used old Norfolk city directories to pinpoint the specific location of
the photograph. The very best indicator for me was the Tait Seed
company which was located on 78 Commercial Place - the road that
goes towards the monument and away from the ferry dock. The
street which is parallel to the waterfront and is perpendicular to
Commercial Pl. is Waterside Street. (Directories show it as Water St.
in the early 1900’s - I don’t believe Waterside existed then).
Google Maps allowed me to take a virtual walk north on Commercial
Pl. to E. Main Street where the Confederate Memorial monument is
located at the intersection or traffic circle. There is a great photo (on
Google Maps), taken from the SirFin website showing a close-up of
the soldier holding the confederate flag.
I believe the rotunda building is now the Douglas MacArthur
Museum. The current building still has a dome shaped structure on
the roof. One thing that puzzled me was the 1900 Norfolk directory
showing the Miller, Rhoads & Swartz Dept.store as being at 300-308
Main St. Current maps place the building with the sign as being in the
400 block. The cars shown may be 1907-09 vintage. A 1907
directory indicated a “new store” was at 463 Main St.-problem
Directories of the time give first names for business men. Linton O.
Miller, Webster S. Rhoads and William G Swartz had the dry goods,
millinery and notions store. The seedsmen were George Tait and his
sons, James, William and Robert. Louis Feuerstein was president of
the ice and oyster packing business. Henry Walke’s business was
railroad, steamship and mill supplies, ship chandlery, etc. There are
likely more! First names made the prominent citizens of Norfolk more
human for me. The public library site for the directories is:
|If you have a picture you'd like us to feature a picture in a future quiz, please
email it to us at CFitzp@aol.com. If we use it, you will receive a free analysis of
your picture. You will also receive a free Forensic Genealogy CD or a 10%
discount towards the purchase of the Forensic Genealogy book.
Norfolk (locally pronounced "NAW-fuhk,"
"NOR-fuhk" or "NOR-fik") is an
independent city in the Commonwealth of
Virginia in the United States. With a
population of 237,764 as of the 2000
census, it is Virginia's second-largest city
behind Virginia Beach.
Norfolk is located at the core of the
Hampton Roads metropolitan area, named
for the large natural harbor of the same
name located at the mouth of Chesapeake
Bay. It is one of nine cities and seven
counties that constitute the Hampton Roads
metro area, officially known as the Virginia
|If you enjoy our quizzes, don't forget to order our books!
Click on thumbnail to see a larger image with labels.
Long-cherished hopes of erecting a Confederate
monument in Norfolk became a reality early in 1898 when
sufficient funds had been raised to make it possible. On
January 28, 1898, permission was granted by the City of
Norfolk to use the space at the head of Commercial Place
(earlier known as Market Square) on which it was
erected. And on February 22, 1899, the cornerstone was
laid on the thirty-second anniversary of the inauguration of
Jefferson Davis as president of the Confederacy.
The monument was designed by the Couper Marble
Works of Norfolk. The original plan called for it to be
topped with a heroic bronze figure of Peace, while four
life-sized bronze figures representing a Confederate sailor,
infantryman, cavalryman, and artilleryman were intended
to adorn the base. But money was scarce, and the
committee finally settled for a handsome fifteen-foot
bronze statue of a defiant Johnny Reb by Norfolk-born
establishments should have also helped in solving the quiz.
in 1964 it became the Douglas MacArthur Memorial
Some of the other buildings that are easily recognizable are
the Old Dominion Paper Co., Tait Seed, Feuerstein & Co.,
Tidewater Supply Co., Southern Supply Co. and The Henry
Walke Co. to name a few. Researching some of these
|Answers to Quiz #261
June 20, 2010
This week’s quiz picture was from a collection of pictures that my grand uncle Ross
Belford Jolley (1906-1946) acquired during his U. S. Navy career from September 1923
to October 1945. I have had the picture for quite a few years, but did not know much
about it other than it was a view of Norfolk, Virginia. I have always liked this picture
because of the time period involved and the amount of detail in the photo. For those
reasons, I thought it might be a good quiz picture.
Obviously, before I could submit it to you, I needed to learn a lot more about the
|Comments from Our Readers
1. What is the name of the street where the ferries are docked?
2. What is the name of the monument at the traffic circle?
3. What is the rotunda building (left background) used for today?
This one was a doozie! Dorothy Nagle
This weeks quiz was fun but hard. Milene Rawlinson
I identified the city by searching for Miller, Rhoads, & Swartz. Another one of those
Forensic Genealogy coincidences, I have stayed at a hotel located almost on the spot
where the ferries are tied up. Jim Baker
The name of the street where the ferries are docked in the picture is Commercial
Place. Now Waterside Dr. also runs along the water, but I don't believe it was there
when the picture was taken.
I found this map collection very helpful www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historic_us_cities.html to
give me a 1920 streetscape at www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/norfolk_va_1920.jpg
confirming the ferry; I got the name of the city by looking up the Feuerstein oyster
company foreground. Ed Vielmetti
I don't know Dan Jolley, and he didn't help me with this. lol Stephen Jolley
N.B. Yes, and I have some swampland in Florida for sale. Interested?
MacArthur's maternal family roots are in Norfolk. Deborah Campisano
phew! I really had to work hard on this one, but it was fun. The ferries are docked on
Nivison, at least the ferry building fronts on Nivison. I confirmed that with the address
of Feuerstein & Co. at 17-25 Nivison and Block N & Co Junk Dealer at 30-40 Nivison.
As I worked on this it occurred to me that it was almost an aerial shot. I mused about
how it could have been taken at the time. I decided maybe a hot air balloon. I figured
the photo dates back to the early 1900s. I used a 1909 city directory to find addresses
of businesses. I don't remember how I came up with that year. The vehicles look as
though they are probably a bit later than that although there are still wagons being used.
Anyway it seems remarkable that the photo is looking down on the area.
A side note-My dad never showed me this picture and I knew nothing about it prior to
today! Have a good day! Jessica Jolley
N. B. We operate totally on the honor system.
I'm looking at that picture again,and re-reading the water terminal book (C 1913), and I
want to revise the answer for the big dock in the center-- I think it's the ferries. "The
next landing is that of the ferries to Portsmouth and Berkley. These ferryboats are
double-enders and carry passengers, wagons, automobiles, etc.
The next wharf is that of the Water Front Coal Co. At this wharf there is a traveling
crane and traveling hopper for loading and unloading boats. There is no railroad
connection, except by barges. The next is the wharf of Feuerstein & Co.(Inc.), fish
and oyster dealers, and then comes the wharf of George W. Taylor & Co., coal dealers.
At this wharf there are two slips and two warehouses and for the handling of coal they
have an iron derrick mounted on an iron tower."
As a matter of fact, if you use this map from 1891: www.google.com/imgres...
you can do a pretty good job of ID'ing the wharves on that section of the waterfront;
Also if you look north about two block form # 13 (Imperial Guano), you can see the
dome of what will become the MacArthur Memorial.. Mary Fraser
The photograph from circa 1920 or earlier. By googling on building names was I able to
positively identify the City: Norfolk, Virginia. Miller Rhoads & Scwartz Dry Goods:
Arrival of buyers in New York as reported by NY times in 1921. Listings by State and
City from and name of or type of business being represented.--Norfolk, Virginia.
Feuerstein & Co., Fish Oyster and Ice: 1909 Norfolk Directory with an address listed at
17-25 Nivision St., Norfolk. This street appears to be right of ferry terminal building.
Oysters means salt not fresh water. Old Dominion Paper Company was on Commercial
St., in Norfolk which went from the dock up towards the monument in traffic circle
and rotunda in left background. There is today a ferry dock for Norfolk/ Hampton
Ferry on Waterside Drive. I could not say if same ferry terminal as shown in photo or
in old building still in existence.
Other two questions monument and rotunda: Monument or obelisk in traffic circle:
Confederate Monument erected circa 1876 and still standing at time of contest photo. I
did find a photo of it on a civil war buff's website; forgot to write down the link; there
was a building behind it in his photo. Norfolk City Hall was erected circa 1850 at 421 E.
City Hall ave. During the 1960s in became the General Douglas MacArthur Memorial.
The general and his wife are entombed beneath the rotunda of the building. A rotunda is
a domed or round ceiling building. The actual dome of the building is called the cupola.
I love old cityscapes! I've never been to Norfolk, but a friend in the 1970's and early
1980's grew up there before we met in Albuquerque. Diane Burkett
|Vintage creamer for
sale on eBay
|Note from Quizmaster Daniel E. Jolley
Submitter of This Week's Quiz Photo
|Linton O. Miller, Webster B.
Rhoads, Mr. Swartz
Reading Eagle newspaper, July 22,
1911, reported that the deparment
store was founded in 1896 at Norfolk,
employs 350 hands, 5-story concrete
building with 125,8000 square feet of
space. The main structure at Norfolk
is 68 x 170 feet, while the annex is 90
by 140 feet.
the ferry slips used to be located at the end of Commercial Place.
Next, I wanted to identify the domed building in the upper left background. Again, using
Google Maps, I was able to see what appeared to be a building with a dome almost
directly in line with Commercial Place and the Confederate Memorial. Google Maps
identifies this building as the MacArthur Memorial Museum which was originally the
Norfolk City Hall. The City Hall building served as both the Norfolk City Hall and
Courthouse until 1918. The building continued to house the courthouse until 1960 and
Beautifully landscaped MacArthur Square in downtown Norfolk,
Virginia is the site of the four buildings that comprise the
MacArthur Memorial. The Memorial's theater contains several
special exhibit galleries and continuously shows a twenty-four
minute film on the life and times of General of the Army Douglas
MacArthur, one of the most colorful and controversial men in
American history. The Jean MacArthur Research
Center (named after the General's widow) houses the library and
archives, education programs, and the administrative offices for
automobiles in the picture narrow it to the 1920s or early 1930s.
The next establishment that I googled was Miller, Rhoads & Swartz which led me to
the Old Dominion University Libraries web site www.lib.odu.edu which provided me
|Congratulations to Our Winners!
Debbie Ciccarelli Dorothy Nagle
Marilyn Hamill Diane Burkett
Wendy Plew Susan E. Skidmore
Peter Norton Jim Kiser
Judy Pfaff Stan Read
Eric Goforth Lean Mangue
William Bruce Hillman JoLynn Pfeiffer
Cyndy Brabender Margaret Paxton
Alan Cullinan Jessica Jolley
Milene Rawlinson Nicole Blank
Deborah Campisano Stephen Jolley
Carol Farrant Edward Vielmetti
Don Draper Jim Baker
Mary Fraser Mike Dalton
Carl Blessing Gary Sterne
Jon Neville Wayne Douglas
Ben Truwe Maureen Dolan
John Chulick Eric Goforth
Michele Cox Dave Doucette
Molly Collins Karen Kay Bunting
Robert W. Steinmann, Jr. Carol Farrant
Beth Long Jim Bullock
Jim Baker Arthur Hartwell
Tamura Jones Tish Olshefski
Brian Kemp Betty Chambers
Talea Jurrens Evan Hindman
Arthur Hartwell Beth Long
Patty Kiker Sharon Mufferi
If your name has been omitted, please let me know. It was unintentional.
picture. I started by scanning the picture at high resolution so that
I could easily see all the details. I first wanted to know exactly
where in Norfolk the two ferries were docked. I started by
googling the names of several of the buildings in the picture. I
started with the Victoria Hotel in the right background and found
that it was located on East Main Street. I learned that the hotel
had been built in 1904 and torn down in 1954 after being gutted
by fire in 1945. This definitively establishes the time span during
which the picture could have been taken although I believe the
1. Waterfront St.
2. Johnny Reb or Confederate Monument
3. McArthur Memorial
with exact addresses for some of the places shown in the
photo. A reference on the ODU website to a photo of a
barbershop in the Victoria Hotel established that the exact
address of the hotel was 523 East Main Street. Another
reference established that the monument at the end of the
street where the ferries were docked was the Johnny Reb
statue (Confederate Monument) located in the 400 block of
East Main and Commercial Place. With these two pieces of
information, it was easy to locate on Google Maps where
|Submitted by Daniel E. Jolley, Patriarch of the Jolley Clan of Quizmasters
the MacArthur Memorial and the General Douglas MacArthur Foundation.
The gift shop displays General MacArthur's 1950 Chrysler Imperial limousine which he
used from 1950 to the end of his life. The museum proper is housed in Norfolk's stately
nineteenth century City Hall. A monumental rotunda is the General's and Mrs.
MacArthur’s final resting place where they are surrounded by inscriptions, banners,
and flags heralding the general’s long and glorious career. Nine separate galleries
arranged in two levels circle the rotunda and tell the story of General MacArthur and
the millions of American men and women who served in the United States Armed
Forces from the Civil War through the Korean War.
A visit to the MacArthur Memorial provides a unique glimpse into the 20th century and
can renew your faith in those American values of Duty-Honor-Country, values which
motivated Douglas MacArthur as he served our nation through some of its greatest
crises and finest hours. Click here for a virtual tour of the McArthur Memorial.
The museum is housed in Norfolk's nineteenth century City Hall, which is both a
Virginia Historic Landmark and a National Historic Place. A monumental rotunda is the
General and Mrs. MacArthur's final resting place. They lie surrounded by inscriptions,
banners and flags heralding his long and glorious career.
British from making it a base of support
and in part because its Scottish and
English merchants were not strong
supporters of the American Revolution.
Nonetheless, it has been the main
population rival to Richmond (which was
made the capital in 1780) throughout the
history of the state.
Richmond could handle shallow-draft
shipping at the City Dock, at the base of
Church Hill, but needed a port with
deeper water for larger ships. It financed
a railroad to West Point, at the junction of
the Mataponi and Pamunkey (the start of
the York River). Petersburg did the same
at City Point, now part of Hopewell. Norfolk's growth was seriously deterred by
competition with Richmond and Petersburg for the inland trade of the Roanoke and
James river watersheds. No city exists in a government vacuum, and Norfolk's growth
demonstrates the impact of political geography more than physical geography of
Virginia. State-supported transportation improvements were recognized from the
beginning as tools for increasing population and wealth of one city, often at the expense
|Newport News, Norfolk, Portsmouth, VA
the ire of the United Daughters of the Confederacy when he
referred to the monument as a "glorified pigeon roost." But
it was not until 1964-65 that the monument was finally
taken down for fear that it would be damaged by the pile
drivers preparing the foundations for the Virginia National
Bank Building (now the Bank of America building).
Cleaned and re-erected six years later, the monument now
provides a pleasing contrast to the functional architecture
that surrounds it.
December 14, 1898
Henry Walke a Suicide