|1. What is the name of the man reading the newspaper?
2. Where is he standing?
3. Who is the photographer who took the picture?
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|Answers to Quiz #200 - March 8, 2009
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|This quiz was suggested by Joe McCabe.
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1. Roy Takeno, the editor of the newspaper, "Manzanar Free Press".
2. In front of the barracks office of the newspaper, "Manzanar Free Press" in a
Japanese-American internment camp in Manzanar, California.
3. Ansel Adams
|Message from the Quizmaster
One of the first things you
should do when identifying a
photo is to look for any writing
that might appear in it. In this
week's quiz photo, the masthead
of the newspaper and the initials
of the photographer in the lower
right corner provide excellent
hints about the answers to the
|Comments from Our Readers
When I first looked at the photo I realized it was an internment camp. When I was a kid
my father would point out buildings that had been relocated from a nearby German
camp (Camp Ellis). The houses on the left hand side of the photo looked very familiar
so I was pretty sure I knew the type of place but had to do some research to answer
the questions. The writing on the newspaper was the main clue that I used. That gave
me the name of the place...Mannzanar relocation camp in California. But who took the
photo and who was the object of the photo? The website for the camp listed the
photographers who had visited and Ansel Adams stuck in my mind as being the one
who take a photo of this type. For awhile I toyed with the idea that the subject was
Toyo Miyatake. But after seeing other photos of Mr. Miyatake I knew it was not him.
So I searched through all the Ansel Adams photgraphy I could find and there it was.
. Angie McLaughlin
Ansel Adams! Holy cow! As a photographer, I am a huge fan of his B/W photographs.
I got to looking at whether there have been any movies made about these camps.
There has been a few "minor" movies made, but few major movies. Seems an
untapped source of material. The tag line from the movie Come See the Paradise is "In
1942, over 100,000 Americans were interned in prison camps.....In
America." Evan Hindman
I never knew the connection between Ansel Adams and Manzanar. Although this was a
fairly easy puzzle, it was very interesting. Mary Osmar
Manzanar was located between Independence and Lone Pine in California's Owen
Valley at the foot of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. No Independence for the Japanese
internees and not a pine tree for miles. Bob Witherspoon
Since I live in California, I have heard of Manzanar Internment Camp on the east side of
the Sierra Nevada mountains (near Independence, California). It has been the subject of
at least one documentary on public television. Manzanar is now a National Historic Site,
but there isn't much left to look at. I have driven by it several times, but didn't know it
was there. There is very little left of it except for a few buildings and a number of
concrete floor slabs. It appears to have been thoroughly picked over and scavenged
after it was abandoned following the war. George E. Wright
Germans were interned here in Australia during both wars. Even those whose parents
had been born here were often interned. In my English homeland, German Jewish
refugees were interned on the Isle of Man. Mick Reed
I worked with a doctor whose parents lived in that interment camp. He told me that
one of the younger people's past time was playing basketball. Since the Japanese
people are generally short in stature that surprised me. They had a lot of time to
practice and became very proficient at the game. There are, to this day, many Japanese
basketball leagues. The whole episode of Manzanar was a disgrace to United States.
Great quiz- This time I tried a Google Image search first (usually I begin with Google
advanced- this time with image). It worked on the first try using "manzanar" in "all the
words" and "free press" in "exact phrase." Wow. Marjorie Wilser
I think that location was much better than any of the desert camp locations in Arizona.
Arizona had several prisnor of war camps and several relocation camps. If you know
the Phoenix area, if the family lived north or east of US60, Grand Avenue the family did
not go to a camp, if they lived west or south of US60 they went to a camp. My parents
knew of families where one part of a family did not have to go and another part of the
family living on the wrong side of the line were moved to a camp.
Order 9066 authorized the Secretary of War to set the Military Areas. I could not find
any map or description of the areas. Wikipedia, called it the "West Coast" and Southern
Arizona, to including Japanese, Italian and German residence. Wikipedia did have one
poster describing a small area in the San Francisco area. Wayne Douglas
personal antedotes: I do recall our next door middleaged neighbor was viewed with
suspicion because of his German ancestry. A Japanese family in the area may have lost
their prune orchard when detained. I think that property was then "donated" to some
protestant church denomination." A high school classmate of mine had difficulty
obtaining a scholarship because his father had served in the Italian Army during WWII.
As always, the subject of camps for refugees, detainees, pows, and relocated people is
politically a sensitive subject. During WWII there were foreign nationals and citizens
and US born people of Japanese, Italian and German descent. The statistics for the
1940 census are not easily available so I went to US 1930 census via ancestry.com by
heads of household:
1. born Japan 74,901 == with 30,732 in CA & 28,483 in Hawaii Territory.
2. born Italy 1,005,076 with: 348,724 in NY, 126,840 in PA, and 66,679 in CA.
3. born Germany 1,008,076 with: 221,996 in NY, 119,370 in IL & 55,099 in CA
it was nice to find a quiz that, for me, was easy. It helps to live in California and to
have had a good friend who was relocated in the Second World War. She was not in
Manzanar, but in Wyoming, I think. The whole relocation camp thing is a black mark
on our history. Families lost everything and had to start over with nothing after the war.
[This] was no ordinary time. I think that if Franklin Roosevelt had it to do over again,
he would not have approved the internment idea, which originated with Secretary of
War Henry Stimson, who had disliked the Japanese people as a whole for many years,
just for personal reasons. Bill Utterback
The Library of Congress has a wonderful collection of the Ansel Adams Manzanar
photographs under the title, "Suffering Under a Great Injustice," that is available on-line.
A great quiz for the 200th! Carolyn Cornelius
there are a lot of good books that have been written to increase awareness about this so
hopefully it will never happen again. Post 9/11 I was afraid we were heading that way.
Farewell to Manzanar by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston is one of the required books on
our school’s summer reading list.
My method to find the man’s name was to realize that it was an amazing photograph
and I knew it had to be taken by someone who was more than your run-of-the-mill
newspaper photographer. You can just look at the composition and the clarity of focus
and know that it is an Ansel Adams. He was just brilliant. So I did a search on Ansel
Adams to find all the other information.
As always, a fun and interesting quiz. I just wish I always had the time, in time, to play!
Before I went to Dental School, I worked at the Southern Regional Research Center as
a Research Chemist. I was in Grad School in Chemistry at Tulane. We had a 2nd
generation Japenese guy named Dr. Larry Yatsu, an electron microscopist, who often
introduced himself with a Japenese accent by saying: Larry Tatsu, Kamikaze Pilot
WWII, 12 missions; retired. He was a hoot; but, as a child one of the interred with his
family. Easy quiz for me because of him. Jim Kiser
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Robert Edward McKenna, QPL
|How Carole and Mike Solved the Puzzle
|Congratulations on your 200th!
I found this thanks to Google images. At
first I Googled Manzanar Free Press and
found the photo on Wikipedia. That told
me it was an Ansel Adams photo. Then I
Googled "Ansel Adams Manzanar +'Free
Press' " and found the photo with this
Figure 41: LC caption: Roy Takeno reads a
copy of the Manzanar Free Press in front
of the newspaper office, mountains in the
background. Ansel Adams photo:
"Free Press" indeed! What an irony.
The quality of the photograph got me
pointed in the right direction. It must have
been taken by one of the great
photographers. The mountains made me
think of Ansel Adams and, with a quick
Library of Congress internet search, I was
The inaugural issue of the Manzanar Free
Press was published on April 11, 1942.
Produced by a Japanese American staff, it
was the first newspaper of its kind in an
assembly or relocation center. From its start
as a simple means to disseminate
information, the Manzanar Free Press grew
into an independent journal with
international, national and camp news,
sports, editorials and gossip.
Originally published exclusively in English, a
need was identified for a Japanese section of
the newspaper. Many Issei (first generation
immigrants) could not read English, while
many Nisei (second generation Japanese
Americans) could not read Japanese. When
Japanese sections were first included,
Washington ordered the practice stopped.
Eventually, a compromise was agreed upon
and the Manzanar Free Press published a
Japanese lanugage supplement with both
original and translated material that was
reviewed by a three person board.
At its peak, Manzanar Free Press' circulation
reached 3,700 copies with subscribers
throughout the United States. While local
|DON'T FENCE THEM IN!
The name of the man who is reading
An issue of the Manzanar Free Press,
Is Roy Takeno, the Editor of
The paper behind fences, no less.
In 1943 Roy is shown standing in front,
Of the newspapers Barracks Office location,
Built inside of the Manzanar Camp, confining,
Japanese citizen held in the Apple Orchard station.
The picture was taken by the Ansel Adams.
Concerned by the fate of those interned,
Used his art to illustrate the conditions,
Of those citizens whose lives were blurred.
Robert Edward McKenna
Quiz Poet Laureate
This week's photo tells such a sad tale
Of American citizens interned.
I hope we have learned a lesson or two
For the sake of all those concerned.
Understudy to Quiz Poet Laureate
Robert E. McKenna
"Early on a bright, cold autumn morning, I
remember Roy Takeno, Yuichi Harata his
business manager (also relocated), and a staff
member [Nabuo Samamura] standing in the sun
before the office of reports and reading a Los
Angeles paper just in by stage from the
Southland. The moment was impressive; the
clean, light, crisp air, the eternal mountain and
the transitory shacks, people of human creative
quality avid for news and opinion of hte great
world in which they rightfully belong." Ansel
Adams, Born Free and Equal.
and national advertisers bought space in the newspaper, the Manzanar Cooperative
Enterprises covered most of the costs. The paper was free to all Manzanar internees.
Additional copies sold for five cents each. Manzanar's Caucasian staff could subscribe
for fifty cents per month or six dollars a year.
In addition to the regular issues, the Manzanar Free Press staff produced several special
editions. A "Special Anniversary Edition" retrospective of the first year of life in camp
was published on March 20, 1943. The "Pictorial Edition" (priced at ten cents per copy)
came out on September 10, 1943. The last issue of the Manzanar Free Press appeared
on September 28, 1945, two months before the camp closed.
Manzanar is most widely known as the
site of one of ten concentration camps
where over 110,000 Japanese Americans
were imprisoned during World War II.
Located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada in
California's Owens Valley between the
towns of Lone Pine to the south and
Independence to the north, it is
approximately 230 miles (370 km)
northeast of Los Angeles. Manzanar
(which means “apple orchard” in Spanish)
was identified by the United States
National Park Service as the best-preserved of the former camp sites, and was
designated the Manzanar National Historic Site.
Long before the first prisoners arrived in March 1942, Manzanar was home to Native
Americans, who mostly lived in villages near several creeks in the area. Ranchers and
miners formally established the town of Manzanar in 1910, but abandoned the town by
1929 after the City of Los Angeles purchased the water rights to virtually the entire
area. As different as these groups might seem, they are tied together by the common
thread of forced relocation.
Since the last prisoners left in 1945, former prisoners and others have worked to
protect Manzanar and to establish it as a National Historic Site that preserves and
interprets the site for current and future generations. The primary focus is the Japanese
American Internment era, as specified in the legislation that created the Manzanar
National Historic Site. The site also interprets the town of Manzanar, the ranch days,
the settlement by the Owens Valley Paiute, and the role that water played in shaping the
history of the Owens Valley.
After the December 7, 1941, attack on
Pearl Harbor, the United States
Government swiftly moved to begin
solving the “Japanese Problem” on the
West Coast of the United States, and in
the evening hours of that same day the
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
arrested selected “enemy” aliens,
including 2,192 who were of Japanese
descent. On February 19, 1942, President
Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive
Order 9066, which authorized the Secretary of War to designate military commanders
to prescribe military areas and to exclude “any or all persons” from such areas. The
order also authorized the construction of what would later be called “relocation centers”
by the War Relocation Authority (WRA) to house those who were to be excluded. This
order resulted in the forced relocation of over 120,000 Japanese Americans, two-thirds
of whom were native-born American citizens. The rest had been prevented from
becoming citizens by federal law. Over 110,000 were imprisoned in the ten
Manzanar was the first of the ten concentration camps to be established. Initially, it was
a temporary “reception center”, known as the Owens Valley Reception Center from
March 21, 1942, to May 31, 1942. At that time, it was operated by the US Army's
Wartime Civilian Control Administration (WCCA).
Food at Manzanar was based on military
requirements. Meals usually consisted of
hot rice and vegetables, since meat was
scarce due to rationing. In early 1944, a
chicken ranch began operation, and in late
April of the same year, a hog farm was
opened. Both operations provided a
welcome supplement to the prisoners' diet.
Most prisoners were employed at Manzanar
to keep the camp running. Unskilled
workers earned US$8 per month,
semi-skilled workers earned $12 per month,
skilled workers made $16 per month, and
professionals earned $19 per month. In
addition, all prisoners received $3.60 per month as a clothing allowance.
The prisoners also made Manzanar more liveable through recreation, and participated in
sports, including baseball and football, and martial arts. They also personalized and
beautified their barren surroundings by building elaborate gardens, which often included
pools, waterfalls, and rock ornaments. There was even a nine-hole golf course.
Remnants of some of the gardens, pools, and rock ornaments are still present at
On November 21, 1945, the WRA closed Manzanar, the sixth camp to be closed.
Although the prisoners had been brought to the Owens Valley by the United States
Government, they had to leave the camp on their own, with the WRA giving $25,
one-way train or bus fare, and meals to those who had less than $600. While many left
the camp voluntarily, a significant number refused to leave because they had no place to
go after having lost everything when they were forcibly uprooted and removed from
their homes. As such, they had to be forcibly removed once again, this time from
The Owens Valley Reception Center was transferred
to the WRA on June 1, 1942, and officially became
the "Manzanar War Relocation Center." The first
Japanese American prisoners to arrive at Manzanar
were volunteers who helped build the camp. By mid–
April up to 1,000 Japanese Americans were arriving
daily, and by July the population of the camp neared
10,000. Over 90% of the prisoners were from the Los
Angeles area, with the rest coming from Stockton,
California, and Bainbridge Island, Washington.
Manzanar held 10,046 prisoners at its peak, and a total
of 11,070 people were imprisoned there.
Life Behind the Barbed Wire
After being uprooted from their homes and
communities, the prisoners found themselves having
to endure primitive, sub-standard conditions, lack of
privacy, and having to wait in one line after another
for meals, at latrines, and at the laundry room. Each camp was intended to be
self-sufficient, and Manzanar was no exception. Cooperatives operated various
services, such as the camp newspaper, beauty and barber shops, shoe repair, and
more. In addition, prisoners raised chickens, hogs, and vegetables, and cultivated the
existing orchards for fruit. Prisoners even made their own soy sauce and tofu.
Indeed, those who refused to leave were
generally removed from their barracks,
sometimes by force, even if they had no
place to go.
146 prisoners died at Manzanar. Fifteen
prisoners were buried there, but only five
graves remain, as most were later reburied
elsewhere by their families.
The Manzanar cemetery site is marked by
a monument that was built by prisoner
stonemason Ryozo Kado in 1943. An inscription in Japanese on the front of the
monument reads, Soul Consoling Tower. The inscription on the back reads "Erected by
the Manzanar Japanese" on the left, and "August 1943" on the right. Today, the
monument is often draped in strings of origami, and sometimes offerings of personal
items are left by survivors and other visitors. The National Park Service periodically
collects and catalogues these items.
After the camp was closed, the site eventually returned to its original state, and within a
couple of years all the structures had been removed, with the exception of the two
sentry posts at the entrance, the cemetery monument, and the former Manzanar High
School auditorium, which was purchased by the County of Inyo. The County leased
the auditorium to the Independence Veterans of Foreign Wars, who used it as a meeting
facility and community theater until 1951. After that, the building was used as a
maintenance facility by the Inyo County Road Department.
As of 2007, the site also retains numerous building foundations, portions of the water
and sewer systems, the outline of the road grid, remains of the landscaping constructed
by prisoners, and much more. And despite four years of use by the prisoners, the site
also retains evidence of the ranches and of the town of Manzanar, as well as artifacts
from the days of the Owens Valley Paiute settlement.
|Read about the Other Nine
Japanese Internment Camps
|Ansel Adams, Born Free and Equal, p95
|the unsavory elements of enforced racial segregation. American has not assimilated all
who have assimilated America. Read more....
Roy Takeno was born in Fresno in 1913 and moved to Los
Angeles in 1928. Completing four years at the University of
Southern California, majoring in journalism, he was well on his
way towards a solid application of public relations and newspaper
work when the wa shattered his plans. His executive and editorial
work in the Office of Reports has served him well. Of his life
prior to the war he says he was "comfortable but felt confined to
his Japanese community". Trained in American schools and
believing in American ways, he feels, along with his fellow Nisei,