Good morning Colleen,

Well, you've hit me just right.  I was on a Fulbright teacher exchange in London for the
1963-64 school year.  This picture is London, England, viewing St. Paul's Cathedral
from the west, I think  looking up Ludgate Hill St. probably from Ludgate Circus.  I
can't seem to enlarge it, but vehicles and dress as far as I can tell might be WWI era,
maybe 1910-20.  I'll work on that part a little more.                           - - Don Holznagel


Thanks for forwarding Brett's information.  Brett, I'm a frequent visitor to Colleen's
puzzles.  I also rely on a 1964 A to Zed now and then!  Here's a nice address for
London history from a transportation viewpoint.  It's the London Transport site, which includes a huge photo archive, where I went to try
to date the Ludgate Circus photo.  You can search their site by date range.

From there, it appears to me that the major double-decker bus in the photo is a
two-horse Garden Seat bus with the driver in high center.  These are represented in
numerous photos from 1890-1905, with the closest matches between 1890 and 1900.  
Between 1900 and 1905, there begin to be a lot of steam, electric, and motor driven
buses, and none are evident in Colleen's photo.

The History section of the web site is headed with a photo of Ludgate Circus from
Fleet Street dated 1897 in which the B in Bovril is barely visible, which is clearly there
in the Ludgate site Brett refers to, and not there at all in Colleen's photo.  So I'm
guessing that Colleen's photo is more likely from the 1890-1895 time frame.  Another
clue could be when the obelisks were moved, but I haven't been able to date that. At
least one is on the left in Colleen's photo, and I think they were moved at different
times.  Thanks for the puzzle, Colleen!  Nice to meet you, Brett!  
                                                       - - Don Holznagel, Portland, Oregon
Another relatively easy one.  The  clues are the sign, "The King Lud ... fine ales, wines,
spirits" and the outline of St Paul's Cathedral in the background.  There is a "King Lud"
pub in Rye, Isle of Wight, but the sight of St Paul's places this one firmly in Ludgate
Circus, at the St Pauls' end of Fleet Street, in London.  The actual pub is now called the
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Quiz #105 Bonus Results
Answer to Bonus Quiz #105
April 15, 2007
Click on thumbnail to see larger version of photo.
Where was this picture taken?
Ludgate, London, England
Thanks to Our Bonus Quiz-a-holics!

Brett Payne
Mary Fraser                Maureen O'Connor
Debbie Sterbinsky                Tom Pincince
Anna Farris                Margaret English
Dorothy Oksner                Linda LaValley
Bill and Mary Hurley          Tonya Dillon      
Jim Kiser                Don Holznagel
Judy Pfaff                Sharon Martin
Don Schulteis                Jinny Collins
Fred Stuart                Stan Read
Don Holznagel                Paula Harris
Grace Hertz                Rick Norman
Ludgate was the westernmost gate in London Wall.
The name survives in Ludgate Hill, an eastward
continuation of Fleet Street and Ludgate Circus.  The
Romans built a road along the north bank of the River
Thames westwards through the gate later called Lud
Gate. Guarding the road from the west, it led to the
Romans' main burial ground in what is now Fleet
Street. The gate stood just above a crossing of the Fleet
River (this now runs underground).  It stood almost
opposite what is now St Martin's Church on what is
now called Ludgate Hill. The site of the gate is marked
by a plaque on the north side of Ludgate Hill, halfway
between Ludgate Circus and St Paul's Cathedral.
Tradition has it that the gate may have been built by an
ancient Briton, King Lud, in 66 BC - but it is more likely
that the Romans were the first to build it, and that it is
simply named after him.  

Rebuilt in 1215, the rooms above the gate became used
as a prison for petty offenders. The gate was one of
three separate sites that bore the name Ludgate Prison.
In 1378 it was decided that Newgate Prison would be
used for serious criminals, and Ludgate for Freemen of
the City and clergy who were imprisoned for minor
offences such as debt.

By 1419 it became clear that prisoners were far too
comfortable here, as they were more likely to want to
stay than to pay their debts and leave. They were all
transferred to Newgate for this reason, although that
prison was so overcrowded and unhealthy that they
soon returned.  It had a flat lead roof for prisoners to
exercise on, as well as a 'large walking place' at ground
level.  Rebuilt by the City in 1586, a statue of King Lud
was placed on the east side, and one of Queen Elizabeth
I on the west. These statues are now outside St
Dunstan's Church, Fleet Street. It was rebuilt again
after being destroyed in the Great Fire.  Like the other
City gates it was demolished in 1760. The prisoners
were moved to a section of the workhouse in
Bishopsgate St.

Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London, near the
old Ludgate, a gate to the City that was taken down,
with its attached jail, in 1780.  Ludgate Hill is the site of
St Paul's Cathedral, traditionally said to have been the
site of a Roman temple of the goddess Diana. It is one
of the three ancient hills of London, the others being
Tower Hill and Cornhill.  Ludgate Hill is also a related
street which runs west from St. Paul's Churchyard to
Ludgate Circus (built in 1864), and from there becomes
Fleet Street. It was formerly a much narrower street
called Ludgate Street.

The legendary King Ludd is supposed to have founded
the settlement or City of London, Caer-Ludd in the 1st
century BCE. It is derived from Ludd-deen or Valley of
Ludd. St. Pauls is situated on top of Ludgate Hill in
London, the original settlement of Ludd. Below it is the
Roman gate of Ludd called Ludgate.
Comments from Our New Quizmaster Brett Payne
htm).  I estimate that your photo was taken in the
late 1800s - perhaps between 1890 and 1905, but
unfortunately the photo is not detailed enough to see
the clothing worn by the people very clearly.
A recent photograph on this web page
is in a similar direction, but from further away, as
evidenced by the relative size of the buildings.  The
same page shows an old black and white postcard
photograph of Ludgate Circus, perhaps around
1910-1915.  The King Lud now advertises Bass &
Co.'s Pale Ale -  Bass & Co.'s brewery was at
Burton-upon-Trent in the English Midlands, where
my own family hail from.  In fact, my
gg-grandfather Henry PAYNE (1842-1907) worked
as a night watchman at the neighbouring brewery of
Ind Coope & Co. in the mid-1860s, at around the
the time of his marriage to my gg-grandmother.

The archway in the middle ground appears to be a
railway viaduct, and indeed my London AZ shows a
railway crossing Ludgate Hill/Fleet Street at this
point, halfway between the stations of Holborn
Viaduct and Blackfriars.  Another postcard featured
on the page mentioned previously, this one coloured
and from around the same time as your photograph,
has a caption which describes the bridge thus:
"The railway viaduct across the bottom of Ludgate
Hill, which features in so many old photographs of
Ludgate Circus, was constructed in 1865 by the
London, Chatham and Dover Railway Company to
carry trains from Blackfriars Station across to
Holborn Viaduct Station.  This intrusion on the
prospect of St. Paul's from Ludgate Circus
remained until the development of City Thameslink
in the early 1990s."

The coloured picture postcard has a sign above the
ground floor of the building to the right of the
bridge, "The Stock Ex..." - presumably this was
"The Stock Exchange."  It is interesting that your
photograph should show a sign on this building
stating, "Machinery Market."
The King Lud, now the Leon,
Ludgate, London.
Ludgate Viaduct

The shop to the left of The King Lud -
not visible in your picture - was Smith
& Wellstood, Stoves & Ranges.  On the
north-west corner of Ludgate Circus
stood a building called Ludgate House,
possibly the one from which your
photograph was taken, which from the
1870s until 1926 was the headquarters
of Cook's Tours (the page mentioned
previously includes a photo of this
building), and apparently still houses a
retail premise of Cook's Travel Agents.  
Thomas Cook, the founder of this
company, hailed from Melbourne in
South Derbyshire, a short bicycle ride
from Chellaston, where my father grew
up.  Connections, connections,
wherever you turn ...

By the way, I found a copy of your
image on the website, - the image
es/london1.jpg) accompanies a series of
140 London views on a CD-ROM
advertised on that site.

Please see Brett's website at
devoted to Victorian & Edwardian
Photographers and Studios in
Derbyshire, England
Stock Exchange Bldg from postcard on
m appearing as machinery mart in quiz
Smith & Wellgood, Stoves and Ranges,
next to King Lud Pub, Ludgate, London
Ludgate Circus from Fleet St.
Ludgate by Francis G. O. Stuart
c. 1890
Ludgate Hill and St. Paul's
Many small alleys on Ludgate Hill were swept away in the early 1870s to build Ludgate
Hill Station between Water Lane and New Bridge Street, a station of the London,
Chatham and Dover Railway.  Not far away, in Cannon Street, is the Roman or
pre-Roman London Stone, from which measurements to London have been taken.
Ludgate Today
Comments from Veteran Quizmaster Don Holznagel