Choose a legal location for your crop circle.
Obtain permission from the land owner before
you start planning. Ideal choices are sloped
fields that rise from public vantage points (a
road for instance), or even an
amphitheatre-like valley.

Touching circles form a basic design.Plan
your crop circle using a large scale map, to
ensure access for both you and your audience.
Plot your straight-line or circular design. Mark
Congratulations to Our Winners

Nerk from Endor
"Rick's Quiz Angels" Ashley Hicks & Jina Yi
Anna Farris                Barbie Cox
Sharon Martin                Beth Tafel
Omid E. Safavi                Bob McKenna
Tom Pincince                Kent McQuain
David Richardson                Debi Stewart
Debbie Sterbinski                Mike Dalton
Stephanie Shaw                Marilyn A.
Bill Utterback                Bob Witherspoon
M. L. Wilser                Jinny Collins
Judy Pfaff                Paula Harris
Bill Hurley                Diane Wilson
Elaine C. Hebert                Jim Kiser
Andy Wold                Mark Brzys
Kelly Fetherlin                Suzan Farris
Dorothy Oksner                Margaret Waterman
Cindy Lou                David Doucette
Bob Craig                Sherry Marshall
Patty Kaliher                Edee Scott
Sue Edminster                Karen Petrus
Don Holznagel                Maureen O'Connor
Ruth Govorchin                Mary Fraser
Bill Utterback                Gary Sterne
Stan Read                Mary South
John Chulick                Sheri Fenley
Fred Stuart                Frank Nollette
Diane Burkett                Sandy Thompson
Bill Hurley                Grace Hertz
Rick Norman                Omid E. Safavi
Dawn Colket               Jessica Dreeson
men were able to make a 40-foot circle in 15 minutes.

The pair became frustrated when their work did not receive significant publicity, so in
1981 they created a circle in Matterley Bowl, a natural amphitheatre just outside
Winchester, Hampshire - an area surrounded by roads from which a clear view of the
named John Rand Capron: "The storms about this part of Surrey have been lately local
and violent, and the effects produced in some instances curious. Visiting a neighbour's
farm on Wednesday evening (21st), we found a field of standing wheat considerably
knocked about, not as an entirety, but in patches forming, as viewed from a distance,
circular spots....I could not trace locally any circumstances accounting for the peculiar
Yes, I do believe that you have "solved" the mystery!  What a coincidence! Although,
keep in mind that people sometimes admit to/take credit for things in which they had no
input!  So, maybe Nerk makes a habit of taking credit for things!  Ha!  I enjoyed the
crop circles - what a huge array of pictures there are, and a zillion+one explanations for
this.  Who knew people could be so easily amused!                            
Kelly Fetherlin

So, Ole Michaelangelo has competition, :)                                              
Anna Farris

Prot from K-PAX told me the Endorians could not have done it because they never
have been good at geometry and all of their art works are in the cubist style.  (I hope
you have read the book K-PAX or seen the Kevin Spacey film of the same name.)
Bob Witherspoon
Oh!  Cousin Nerk!  I wondered what happened to him....                       
Jinny Collins

Friend of mine says <ROFL, snerk>. Me too!                                        
M. L. Wilser

N.B.  Marjorie, I wasn't joking.....Nerk
Gheez! I thought surely someone from the galaxy Nebuli would have responded.
Everyone knows that those circles are space ship manipulation  exercises for new
space cadets of the galaxy Nebuli. Ask people from New Mexico.                
Jim Kiser

It always amazes me how creative humans really are and some creatively funny
pranksters...for the kid in all of us.                                                      
Debi Stewart

N.B. You don't have to be an earthling to be a prankster! Nerk
True.  I've also heard that it also takes a few pints of ale on the other side of the pond.  
Andy Wold

I think you should e-mail Nerk back, and ask if he's related to the Witch of Endor
(from the Book of Samuel) and if yes, ask him for a lineage chart........  ..
Mary Fraser.

N.B.  Nerk doesn't have one.  He was hatched.
Finally - someone has owned up to the mystery.                                   
Elaine Hebert

I didn't have to go too far to research this photo.  I've had this site bookmarked for years in my favorites.  
I have a keen interest in "Earth Art" (from pre-history to the present day)and the crop
circles certainly fit into my area of interest!                                                         
Beth Tafel

My answer is "Julia Set", or rather three Julia Sets.  This was a fun one for jumping
back into your quiz game.  I learned a lot about crop circles.  If these are not crop
circles, no matter, it was an interesting.                                      
Maureen O'Connor

This process entails a great deal of planning and hard physical work. This is not one of
my many hobbies!                                                                             
Bob McKenna

Right away I guessed that this was a crop circle formation somewhere in the UK. WHO
done it, IS the $64 question-- earthlings with a mischevious metaphysical bent or
extraterrestrials (off the planet interdimensional beings who leave their calling cards
imprinted upon fields of grain or etched in stone or drawn upon dry lake beds.
Mike Dalton
Yeah, this summer I visited Avesbury and Stonehenge in England. Many crop
circles have been made here and they really are beautiful and intricate things. Many
postcards on sale in shops of different crop circles. It's certainly good to know that
Nerk is the responsible party. Are you planning to share this info with CNN?
Paula Harris
When I worked for the FBI, all these extraterrestrial events wound up on my desk due
to my involvement in protection of the stealth program. I may have even talked to
Nerk! I think he had my direct line.  ;-)                                                    
Bill Hurley

Really, the alien did it?  It was an out-of-this-world guess.  I thought 'they' may have
come up with some scientific explanation for it, like high school pranksters (as if!).
They are very artistic, I like them!                                                       
Diane Wilson

Duh-duh-duh-duh-really made by UFO's from the Planet Mercury-They weren't making
enough money from the commercials!!                                            
Ruth Govorchin

Are you KIDDING ME?!  i'm pretty sure this question will never truly be answered.
Incidentally, i had visited the Circlemakers' web site at the beginning of my search, then
left it and moved on to other crop circle sites. After discovering the term "triskelion"
embedded in a jpeg image name, a search for that word brought me back (full-
CIRCLE...groan!) to the Circlemakers and another site crediting their organization with
the Kent Circles.  Whew!                                                       
Jessica Dreeson
If you enjoy our quizzes, don't forget to order our books!
If you have a picture you'd like us to feature a picture in a future quiz, please
email it to us at If we use it, you will receive a free analysis of
your picture. You will also receive a free
Forensic Genealogy CD or a 10%
discount towards the purchase of the
Forensic Genealogy book.
Quiz #126 Results
1.  A crop circle
2.  Well that's a good question.....
Some  say they are made by humans stomping around with boards and ropes.  
But our new Quizmaster Nerk from Planet Endor
says he takes personal responsibility for them.
Quiz #126 - September 16, 2007
1. What is this formation called?
2. How was it produced?
Crop Circle Gallery
Comments from Our Readers
It's a mystery no longer. I take full responsibility for creating the crop circles.
                                                                    Nerk from Endor
Instructions on How to Make a Crop Circle
Submitted by Jina Yi and Ashley Hicks
Trottiscliffe (Trosley) -
20th June 1999 - Wheat
by Graham Tucker

Etched in winter wheat, this quite amazing
formation was best seen from Trosley
Country Park, which just so happens to
overlook this particular field that lies in the
valley below.
The tri-circular circle of circles is basically a very ancient Celtic symbol known as a
triskelion or triskele, which was commonly employed in border patterns by Celtic
illuminators. The way the circles intertwine perfectly illustrates the cyclic aspect of the
"everflowing outward returning to source". And as if to further acknowledge this, the
formation was found just a half a mile or so away from the Coldrum Stones, which for
thousands of years have gazed upon this ancient land that was once worked by the

Andrew King's overhead reveals in one corner a welldefined letter "M". Clearly a
satellite signature, it was only a couple of stalks wide. It can also be seen in Peter
Sorensen's "Circles of '99" video which contains some excellent footage of the
formation. Peter doesn't usually cover Kent, but he was so impressed with this one that
he felt he had to make a flyover.

Being overlooked by many visitors. The especially when screaming kids and crop!
Surprisingly though, survive much of this visitors. Let's hope they experience!
Incidentally, there was adjacent field that was same time, but it Circlemakers" had
attraction. This interlocking 43 circles, which we finest, was beautifully swept
Crop Circle on Google Maps near Billingley, England
The Face

Even as a stand alone formation this glyph was spectacular
for several reasons. To create this image, standing clumps
were made out of wheat stalks, with each clump individually
swirled and stitched together as a “pixel” while adjoining
wheat plants were flattened around the pixels to create the
overall image effect. This is a radical departure from
traditional circle design. The dark areas represent wheat that
has been flattened while the light colored dots represent
standing clumps of wheat.
rop_circles.htmNautilus crop
West Kennet, 1999
The History of Modern Crop Circles
The earliest recorded image claimed to be a crop circle is
depicted in a 17th century woodcut called the
Mowing-Devil. The image depicts a strange creature (the
Devil with a scythe) mowing (cutting)[5] a circular design
in a field of oats. The pamphlet the image appeared in
states that the farmer, disgusted at the wage his mower
was demanding for his work, insisted that he would rather
have "the devil himself" perform the task.A more recent
historical report of crop circles was republished (from
Nature, volume 22, pp 290-291, 29 July 1880) in the
January 2000 issue of the Journal of Meteorology. It
describes the 1880 investigations by an amateur scientist
forms of the patches in the field, nor indicating whether it
was wind or rain, or both combined, which had caused
them, beyond the general evidence everywhere of heavy
rainfall. They were suggestive to me of some cyclonic
wind action,..."

Crop circles shot into prominence in the late 1970s as
many circles began appearing throughout the English
countryside. The phenomenon of crop circles became
widely known in the late 1980s, after the media started to
report crop circles in Hampshire and Wiltshire. To date,
approximately 12,000 crop circles have been discovered in
sites across the world, from disparate locations such as
the former Soviet Union, the UK and Japan, as well as the
U.S. and Canada. Sceptics note a correlation between
crop circles, recent media coverage, and the absence of
fencing and/or anti-trespassing legislation.

Although farmer have expressed concern at the damaged
caused to their crops, local response to the appearance of
a crop circles can often be enthusiastic, with locals taking advantage of the tourist
potential of circles. Past responses have included Buses or helicopters tours of circle
site, walking tours, t-shirts and book sales. Potential markets include curious tourists,
scientists and crop circle researchers, and individuals seeking a spiritual experience by
praying to and communing with spirits.
In 1996 a circle appeared near
Stonehenge and the farmer set up a
booth and charged a fee. He collected
£30,000 in four weeks. The value of
the crop had it been harvested was
probably about £150.

The Real(?) Story
In 1991, more than a decade after the
phenomenon began, two men from
Southampton, England announced that
they had conceived the idea as a prank at a
pub near Winchester, Hampshire during an
evening in 1976. Inspired by the 1966
Tully Saucer Nests. Doug Bower and
Dave Chorley made their crop circles
using planks, rope, hats and wire as their
only tools: using a four-foot-long plank
attached to a rope, they easily created
circles eight feet in diameter. The two
field is available to drivers passing by. Their designs were
at first simple circles. When newspapers claimed that the
circles could easily be explained by natural phenomena,
Bower and Chorley made more complex patterns. A
simple wire with a loop, hanging down from a cap - the
loop positioned over one eye - could be used to focus on a
landmark to aid in the creation of straight lines. Later
designs of crop circles became increasingly complicated.

Bower's wife had become suspicious of him, noticing high
levels of mileage in their car. Eventually, fearing that his
wife suspected him of adultery, Bower confessed to her
and subsequently he and Chorley informed a British
national newspaper.

Chorley died in 1996, and Doug Bower has made crop
circles as recently as 2004. Bower has said that, had it not
been for his wife's suspicions, he would have taken the
secret to his deathbed, never revealing that it was a hoax.
Doug Bower and Dave Chorley
Cropped Circles - FAQs
How many appear?

Around 250 crop designs around the world appear each year on average. Several
thousand have been documented since records began.

Where do they appear?

Crop circles are a global phenomenon, but predominantly appear in the Northern
Hemisphere with Southern England as the main centre of activity, particularly Wiltshire.

When do they arrive?

Off-season formations have occurred, but most appear during the three main summer
months of any given country.

What crops do they appear in?

Any crop can be a potential target for the phenomenon: wheat, barley and oilseed rape
(canola), as the main crops grown, are the most common in England, at least, but they
have also been reported in rye, oats, flax, peas, potatoes, sweet corn maize and many
other mediums, including rice paddy fields in Japan. Formations have also been found
in wild grass and undergrowth.
Links for Further Information
Geometry and Reconstruction of Crop Circles

An Investigation of the Mowing Devil Manuscript
Bishop Canning
24 August 1999
Allington Down, Wiltshire
June 1999
30 July 1999
on the map the directions you will be flattening, to avoid visible signs of passage
(inexperienced circle makers can spoil a design by leaving stripes like a lawnmower

Initial access is normally through existing farm tracks and trails, so note the position of
them before you start. True non-disc curves are much harder to achieve, and rarely if
ever witnessed.Create your design on computer, and make amendments until you
have the design you can be proud of. Use
inspiration from state-of-the-art designs
as seen on the internet. Practicing
shape-making in the field will only result
in people seeing your mistakes.

Start simple: consider making your first
crop circle from an arrangement of discs
in a geometric formation. More advanced
curved lines can be created by
overlapping partial circular arcs.

Equip each member with the equipment
listed under Things You'll Need. Once in
the field, use measurements to place
markers exactly. Your friends can help
you place markers, make line-of-sight
calculations, and lay the rope to mark
areas for flattening.
Using construction lines to make more complex shapes.  Make construction lines by
laying rope outlines to shapes. Then flatten circles at the intersection points. To make
the shown example formation, create a rope outline of a equilateral triangle, and create
flattened circles at the triangle corners. Avoid flattening over the rope, to create an
implied triangle.
Search on Google
Images for many more
exquisite examples of
crop circles.

Click Here.
There are two methods commonly used to

Plank Flattening - use a roped plank (see
Things You'll Need) to flatten by holding
the rope or looping it over your shoulders.
Press forwards and down by keeping one
foot on the plank. Advance using a
shuffling gait.

Using a roller - some circlemakers prefer
using a light roller (available from garden
centres) to speed up flattening. Keep on
flattening until you have completed your
design and have a really nice, well-made complex formation.

Wait for the media to spot the new formation. This may take several days, or you can
speed the process by making an anonymous call. A good design will provide local
newspapers with many column-inches of speculation.
The actual formation [of this week's photo of a crop circle] is a fractal based on what
is called a Wada or Wada Basin Fractal. An easy way to reproduce this pattern is by
placing a tetrahedron of four reflective spheres together (like Christmas ornaments),
similar to the position of the four spheres in the center of this picture. The primary
wada basin fractal can also be created using three spheres, which may be represented
in this picture as well, as opposed to a tetrahedron four sphere formation.  
Omid E. Safavi
A Mathematical Description