11. Anne E. Peaston, Alexei V. Evsikov, Joel H. Graber, Wilhelmine N. de Vries, Andrea E. Holbrook, Davor Solter, and Barbara B. Knowles: "Retrotransposons Regulate Host Genes in Mouse Oocytes and Preimplantation Embryos,”Developmental Cell, 7(4), pages 597–606, October 2004.
16. If the STR markers used for genealogical analysis were used to identify someone who committed a crime, about 580 markers would have to match to have a 90% probability that the person who left the DNA sample at the scene of a crime shared a MRCA with the suspect within 1 generation. This is about ten times the number of markers that are presently known. If the probability were lowered to 50%, roughly 380 markers would be required.
20. E. Heyer, J. Puymirat, P. Dieltjes, E. Bakker, P. de Knijff, "Estimating Y chromosome specific microsatellite mutation frequencies using deep rooting pedigrees," Hum Mol Denet 6 (1997) 799- 803, also M. Kayser, L. Roewer, M. Hedman, L. Henke, J. Henke, S. Brauer, C. Kruger, M. Krawczak, M. Nagy, T. Dobosz, R. Szibor, P. de Knijff, M. Stoneking, A. Sajantila, "Characteristics and frequency of germline mutations at microsatellites from the human Y chromosome revealed by direct observation in father/son pairs," American Journal of Human Genetics 66 (2000) 1580-1588, also G. Cooper, N. J. Burroughs, D. A. Rand, D. C. Rubinsztein, W. Amos, "Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of human Y-chromosome microsatellites provides evidence of biased mutation," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 96, 11916-11921, (1999).
21. B. Myhre Dupuy, M. Stenersen, A. G. Flones, B. Olaisen, "Mutations at Y-STR Loci: a study of 1767 Father-Son Pairs of Norwegian Origin," Proc. of the Third International Y-Users Workshop, Y- chromosome haplotype database(s): state of the art and future developments, November 7-9, 2002, Porto, Portugal.
29. Cann, R.L., Stoneking, M., and Wilson, A. C., “Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution,” Nature, 1987 Jan 1-7;325(6099):31-6; and Stoneking, M., Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution,” J Bioenerg Biomembr., Jun; 26(3):251-9, 1994.
33. Used with the permission of Bennett Greenspan, Family Tree DNA.
34. J. F. O’Connell, “Genetics, archeology, and Holocene hunter-gathers,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, September 14; 96 (19): 10562– 10563, 1999
35. J. F. O’Connell, “Genetics, archeology, and Holocene hunter-gathers,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, September 14; 96 (19): 10562– 10563, 1999.
36. Annette Gordon-Reed, Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings: An American Controversy, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 1998) as discussed in Thomas H. Roderick, “The Y- Chromosome in Genealogical Research: ‘From Their Ys a Father Knows His Own Son’", National Genealogical Society Quarterly 88 (June 2000), p. 122-143
37. E. A. Foster et al, :Jefferson Fathered Slave’s Last Child,” Nature 396 (5 November) 1998:27-28.
38. Thomas H. Roderick, “The Y-Chromosome in Genealogical Research: ‘From Their Ys a Father Knows His Own Son’, National Genealogical Society Quarterly 88 (June 2000), p. 122-143.
65. Andrews R. M., I. Kubacka, P. F. Chinnery, R. N. Lightowlers, D. M. Turnbull, N. Howell, “Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA,” Nat. Genet., 23:147, 1999.
66. Bennett Greenspan, Family Tree DNA, private communication.
67. A. Achilli et al, "The Molecular Dissection of mtDNA Haplogroup N Confirms that the Franco- Cantabrian Refuge Was a Major Source for the European Gene Pool," Am. J. Hum. Genet., 75, 910-918, 2004.
68. Information in Tables 8, 9, 10, and 11 and information included in the accompanying discussion are used with the permission of L. David Roper, http://www.roperld.com/mtDNA.htm.
70. B. Walsh, “Estimating the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor for the Y chromosome or Mitochondrial DNA for a Pair of Individuals” , Genetics, 158: 897–912 (June 2001).
71. M. Tremblay and Helene Vesina, "New Estimates of Intergenerational Time Intervals for the Calculation of And and Origins of Mutations," Am. J. Hum. Genet., 66: 651-658, 2000.
72. Hudson , R. R., “Gene genealogies and the coalescence process,” Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, D. J. Futuyama and J. Antonovics, eds., Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 1–44.
73. B. Walsh, “Estimating the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor for the Y chromosome or Mitochondrial DNA for a Pair of Individuals,” Genetics, 158: 897–912 (June 2001).
74. If this link does not work, an alternate route to the site is to go to http://www.genealogy.com, click on My Community on the banner, click on F, click on FI, click on FIT, then search for “DNA” or “Colleen” on the page.
83. While it is true that Trembly et al, “New Estimates of Intergenerational Time Intervals for the Calculation of Age and Origins of Mutation,” Am. J. Hum. Genet., 66:651-658 (2000) found that a generation over the last few centuries is about 30 years, the average lifespan of males for the last few thousand years was probably much shorter.
84. Irish Pedigrees or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation by John O'Hart.